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Sunday, October 20, 2013

Biology 101, Chapter 3, The 5th Day - Aquatic Creatures

In addition to Biology 101:
• Apologia Biology Exp 13.1 Perch Dissection (another great image)
--We ordered our dissection kits from Home Science Tools.  Our worms in the kits were mostly flattened, so I requested new ones and received them in just a few days, round and plump!
Write a report on any Aquatic Creature (also draw and label)

• Apologia Biology Exp 12.1 Crayfish Dissection
--Crayfish dissection worksheet and appendage table
--another image of crayfish internal organs
--also see Applie's class's crayfish dissection
--See our crawdad the girls found shortly after doing this chapter in Apologia.
Write short reports on organisms in Subkingdom Protozoa: amoeba, euglena, and paramecium (also draw and label)
--How to pronounce euglena. Also type in paramecium, etc.
• You can also make edible trilobites!  We didn't since half of my class had already done that in General Science M8.

►Links to more dissections

I assigned the written reports above to take the place of the field trip and essay assigned in Biology 101.  We also allow 4 weeks per chapter instead of 3 weeks.

(1) Terminology
  • Dorsal - referring to the back, or it might seem to be the top if the animal is not upright like a human, but it is its back.  Like a dorsal fin on the back of a fish.
  • Ventral - referring to the front, or belly-side of an organism.
  • Anterior - in front of, or the end that contains an organism's head.
  • Posterior - in back of, or the end that contains an organism's tail.
A shark has two dorsal fins.  This means they are on its back.  There is an anterior dorsal fin and a posterior dorsal fin.  The anterior is toward the head and the posterior is toward the tail.
Something can also be "anterior to" another body part, meaning it is in front of it, and "posterior to" another body part would mean it is in back of it.

Aquatic Vertebrates

(2) Osteichthyes (bony fish)
Perch anatomy - exterior and interior

►You can also watch Shark anatomy!

(3) Agnatha (jawless fish) are a type of cartilage fish.
Lol, Agnatha talked so much, her jaw deteriorated.
One type of Agnatha is the Lamprey.  ewwww! 

Aquatic Invertebrates

Invertebrates have an exoskeleton rather than an outer skeleton.  So they do not have a backbone, thus the name invertebrate.

Some invertebrates are also arthropods.  Arthropod means jointed leg or foot.
All the creatures below are invertebrates.  Which of these invertebrates are also arthropods?

(4) Crayfish Anatomy part 1
Please ignore the evolutionary references.

(5) Crayfish Anatomy part 2

(6) Crayfish Swimming, trying to catch food.
Growing up, I always called these crawdads.  =)

(7) Lobster

(8) Shrimp

►See baby shrimp being born around 0:50 seconds.

(9) Beautiful Crab at Costa Rica

Watch this crab run!

"Barnacles (see images) are crustaceans that have jointed legs and shells of connected overlapping plates. Instead of crawling after food, they glue themselves to rocks, ships, pilings  abalones, and maybe even whales and wait for food to wash by. When barnacles are under water or when a wave washes over them, they reach out little feathery barbed legs to strain out plankton and absorb oxygen."

(10) Barnacles "sweeping" the water to gather any plankton floating about.

(11) Amoeba Dinner!
Watch this amoeba eat.  It uses its pseudopod locomotion to move and to engulf its prey.  To begin with, everything moves slowly until the prey realizes it is caught!

►See more images of amoebas!

(12) Euglena, from a pond

(13) Euglena's movement by whirling its flagella, and by drawing its cytoplasm into the central region of the cell, then re-extending itself forward.

(14) A paramecium moves by beating the tiny "hairs" on its edge.  These are called cilia.
Paramecia have an oral groove where they take in food.  You can see the oral groove around 40 seconds when it starts turning over several times.
The little "blobs" throughout are food vacuoles.  After a paramecium takes in food through the oral groove, it pinches off a little section with the food inside it.  This is now a food vacuole, and it will move to other parts of the paramecium, taking food to its whole body.

(15a) Octopus Camouflage!  This is incredible!

(15b) Watch it in reverse

Octopus videos from


  1. Marty, just wondering where you are covering Kingdoms Protista, Monera, and Fungi. I am trying to organize it all and am just not sure the best place to put those.

    Also, just wanted to give a giant THANK YOU for all you have done, organized, and shared freely. This actually makes it doable to me. Thank you soooo much!

  2. First, I apologize for not replying before now! We left for vacation the day you commented, and it has been very hectic since we got back. Planning for our daughter's wedding (in 4 weeks!) has taken up much of my spare time! =)
    And thank you for your kind comment. You are so very welcome! =)

    In Biology 101, Fungi is mentioned in the chapter about Plants, under the section Nonvascular Plants.
    Protozoa are mentioned in the chapter about Aquatic Creatures, under Aquatic Invertebrates
    Bacteria – Kingdom Monera – is mentioned in the Land Animals chapter, under Land Invertebrates.
    I added in chapters from Tiner's Biology that seemed to fit there. If you'll email me your email, I can send you my loose schedule. =)

    ►Apologia teaches that Fungi aren't plants, so I mentioned that to my class. But anyone who has studied Biology even a little quickly finds out there isn't a 'place for everything and everything in its place.' Biologists are still arguing, um, er, discussing, where to place certain organisms, and that changes all the time! I told the kids the main thing is to know that God’s Creation is so awesomely complex! And because of that, there are things that can’t always be explained, things that don’t always fit neatly into categories.

    When we first began chapter one, I took some extra time and did an overview of the 5 kingdoms. We looked through the Apologia Biology book at pictures and read a few paragraphs here and there. I wanted them to get a good overview so they would have an idea where we were going. I think an overall picture is better than feeding them one puzzle piece at a time. Just like doing a jigsaw puzzle would be difficult if you lost the box with the picture on it. =)
    We also learned how to do Biological Classification. Using Apologia’s experiment in the first chapter, we categorized 15 organisms. By the time they were done, they were familiar with terms like phyla, class, etc, and had a better idea of the 5 kingdoms.


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