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Thursday, February 16, 2012

Apologia General Science, Module 11, The Human Body

What we did at Sahm-I-Am

Online Study Links:
Quizlet Flashcards
Label the Skeletal System
Put this skeleton back together

• Experiment about Gravitropism.  A variation of Exp. 11.2
• Experiment similar to Exp. 11.1, except this one also mentions using bleach and vinegar.
• Printable skeleton for classifying bones
• Printable Root Word Parts
See these and more at Debbie's Educator's Resources.  (Thanks, Debbie!)
• More printable free worksheets (with answer keys) Skeletal System, Types of Joints, Muscular System, Bone Anatomy
• Printable Skeleton from
• Donna Young's dd's drawing of A Typical Bone (She did an awesome job!)

(1) p. 267-269a, The Superstructure of the Human Body

No videos for this section.
This section seems to be kind of an overview of the module anyway.


(2) p. 269-273, Bones and the Human Skeleton
Most people think bones are fixed structures.  But bones are constantly changing, even after you are grown.
If you injure a bone, it will repair itself.  But there is also micro-damage to bones that naturally occurs during everyday activities, and old bone is constantly being broken down and replaced.
In adults, about 10% of bone is replaced each year.
►►Watch this animation to see how a fractured bone is repaired.  Keep clicking Continue.  Scroll down to the next box and click Start.
Bone remodeling will happen all your life, but some bones will be remodeled more than others, depending on what activities you do most.
Here is a painful example.  (ouch!)

More about Bone Remodeling

The Skeletal System


(3) p. 273b-275, Skeletons in Other Organisms
An insect is an arthropod. Arthropods are invertebrates.

►Would you think that a lobster could find its way home like a homing pigeon?
Read of this awesome discovery about the Caribbean spiny lobster!
Global Positioning Lobsters.


(4) p. 275-281a, Skeletal Muscles
This video is about all three types of muscles:  Smooth, Cardiac, and Skeletal



(5) p. 281-282, Smooth Muscle and the Cardiac Muscle


(6)  p. 282-284a, Muscles and Movement in Other Organisms
This section mentions a bit about each kingdom and how they move, and whether or not they have muscles.
One interesting thing is that even though plants do not have muscles, they certainly can move.  Oh, of course they can't move from place to place, but they do move right where they are planted.

A tropism is a growth response or movement response of a plant because of a stimulus.
A stimulus is something that causes a response.  (like the sun, or water)
►Tropisms depend on the direction of the stimulus, and therefore can change.
For example, hydrotropism is a growth toward water, like roots growing toward water.  If the source of water changes, the growth of the roots will change.
Here are some other tropisms.

Phototropism, and a little about gravitropism
These growth responses are a result of the direction of the stimulus - the sun, or gravity.

Phototropism and Heliotropism
Watch these bush beans as they grow toward the sun. (phototropism)
Then watch as shadows move over them - they ALL lean toward the sun. (heliotropism)
(Video was shot over a 24 hour period.)
Growth and Movement response is a result of the direction of the stimulus - the sun.

Thigmotropsim - response to touch (what the plant touches, not what touches the plant, like a human or animal)
Growth response is a result of the direction of the stimulus - the pole.  The vine would not grow this direction without the pole.
LOL at the spider that comes down at 0:12.  =D

►More tropism videos at Plants-in-Motion.  Click on the side titles.

►Heliotropism vs. Phototropism - "Heliotropism is the diurnal (opposite of nocturnal) motion of plant parts (flowers or leaves) in response to the direction of the sun. It is not a phototropism since it does not involve growth." (source)

♦Tropisms are not things that are caused only by a pre-programmed response, such as the opening or closing of flower petals.  Flowers usually open every morning even if they are inside and not near a window.  There are even some flowers that open at dusk!
These are not directional responses to a stimulus.
Flowers following the sun is a directional response to a stimulus.
♦Since tropisms depend on the direction of a stimulus, a Venus fly trap that closes when touched is not an example of a tropism.  It doesn't matter from which direction the touch comes, the Venus fly trap is pre-programmed to close the same way each time.
♦These kinds of pre-programmed responses are called Nastic Movement.  My older daughter learned about it last year.  If you like, you can read more about it in my Biology post, kingdom Plantae.  It is the first section.

Here is a picture of a bean plant we grew last year in Biology, then turned on its side.
It was "planted" with paper towels pressing it against the side of a clear cup so that we could also observe the roots (which you cannot see in this pic).
Read more at Sahm-I-Am.
Heliotropism - movement toward the sun


(7)  p. 284-288, Skin
A lot going on in a thin layer of skin!

A pigment called melanin gives our skin its color


(8) p. 289-290, Skin in Other Organisms

No videos for this section.


An extra, just for fun.  =)

Isn't he cute!

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