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Thank you!

Apologia Biology, Module 15, Kingdom Plantae: Physiology and Reproduction

M15 Recap blog post at Sahm-I-Am
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M15

(1) p. 463-465, How a Plant Depends on Water
If you don't remember the terms photosynthesis, turgor pressure, hydrolysis, or transport, review them now by looking in the index in your textbook to see on what page they are mentioned.
Note what module they are in if you need to review videos from that module.

Stimulus:  something causing a response.

Nastic Movement vs. Tropism
Nastic movement is a preprogrammed response, and any direction of movement is independent of the direction from which the stimulus comes.  No matter from which direction the light comes, the plant's response is the same each morning -- opening of leaves and petals.  Or if a plant's leaves close when you touch them, it does not matter which direction the touch is from.  The plant is preprogrammed to this action.
Nastic movement is not a growth response.
It does not grow in a direction as a result of a stimulus.
Tropisms depend on the direction of the stimulus, and therefore, can change.
Tropisms can be a growth response or a movement response.
Growth of a plant toward sunlight is phototropismThe sunlight is the stimulus.
• Heliotropism is when plants bend toward the sun as it moves across the sky.  This is a movement response that is a tropic response since it depends on the direction of the stimulus.
--These are tropisms if the plant moves or grows toward the light, rather than just opening its leaves as in nastic movement.   
• Thigmotropism is a growth response to touch, like a vine touching a branch will grow around the branch.  The direction of growth depends on the direction of the branch.  The branch is the stimulus.
Tropisms are growth or movement responses, but both depend on the direction of the stimulus.
• Gravitropism (also called geotropism) works in two ways.  Roots grow down, and shoots grow up.  The shoots growing up is not simply a result of phototropism, because they will grow up even in the dark.  The seeds that germinate and sprout upwards while still covered with soil are proof of this.  This is called negative gravitropism, since they grow in the opposite direction of gravity.  Roots growing down is positive gravitropism.
• Hydrotropism is growth toward water.  This would most likely be roots growing toward water.

Examples of nastic movement (not a growth response like a tropism can be)
Nastic movement because it does not matter from which direction the bug comes.
This is a preprogrammed response to happen when the hairs are touched.   

More nastic movement
Nastic movement because it does not matter from which direction the leaves are touched.   
This is a preprogrammed response to happen when touched.    

Nastic movement of a Moon Flower, also called an Evening Primrose
It opens near dusk and it takes about 30 to 60 seconds for one to open. About 10 to 20 open each night on a plant and they all fade by noon the next day.
♦ This is in real time, not a time lapse.
Nastic movement because there is nothing in any direction that prompts this behavior.  
This is a preprogrammed response for this to happen at night. 

LOL, dh asked about pollination, and I told him they're open until noon the next day.
He laughed and said they only serve breakfast.  =)

►More nastic movment videos at Plants-in-Motion.  Click on the side titles.

(2) p. 465-466, Water Absorption in Plants
Clay, Silt, or Sand
She says equal parts of each, but for a good loam, Sand and Silt should actually be 40% each, and Clay less than 20%.

How to test your own soil

Now that you know what is a good loam, and maybe what your own soil's content is, how much you should water your garden?

(3) p. 466-469, Water Transport in Plants
Transpiration - water up the xylem and out the leaf. 
Translocation - sugars down the phloem. (great video!)

Water's cohesion

Adhesion and cohesion

(4) p. 469-471, Plant Growth
Hormones in plants

Remember the difference between nastic movement and tropisms?
Tropisms can be a movement OR a growth response.
Phototropism, and a little about gravitropism 
These are growth responses as a result of the direction of the stimulus - the sun, or gravity.

Phototropism and Heliotropism
Watch these bush beans as they grow toward the sun. (phototropism)
Then watch as shadows move over them - they ALL lean toward the sun. (heliotropism)
(Video was shot over a 24 hour period.)
Growth and Movement response is a result of the direction of the stimulus - the sun.

Thigmotropism - response to touch (what the plant touches, not what touches the plant - like a human or animal)
Growth response as a result of the direction of the stimulus - the pole.  The vine would not grow this direction if it were not for the pole.
LOL at the spider that comes down at 0:12  =D

►More tropism videos at Plants-in-Motion.  Click on the side titles.
You will see that there is a video for Sunflower phototropism, as well as one for Sunflower solar tracking, also called heliotropism.  (Read the info on each video.)

(5) p. 473-475, Reproduction in Plants: Vegetative Reproduction
Asexual reproduction

(6) 475b-478, Sexual Reproduction in Phylum Anthophyta (flowers)

(7), p. 480-484, The Reproductive Process in Anthophytes, Part 1: Forming Pollen and Embryo Sacs; Part 2: Pollination; Part 3: Fertilization 

(8) p. 485-488, Seeds and Fruits
This is a chart I made to see at a glance the classification of fruits.
These are the ones used in your Biology book.

(9) p. 489-190, Germination and Early Growth
Beans -- dicotyledons
"Epigeal germination
"Filmed underground to show the roots growing, the hypocotyl grows and pulls the cotyledons up through the soil and above ground. The protective skin called the testa remains underground.
"The cotyledons feed the plant until its strong enough to support itself. When spent [used up], the cotyledons can drop off.
"9-12 minute interval between exposures.  This sequence was filmed over a period of about 4 weeks."
--from Neil Bromhall
The cotyledons (the 2 halves of the bean) stay on the stem for a bit as it grows, and are food for the plant until photosynthesis in the leaf can begin.

Peas -- dicotyledons
"Hypogeal germination
"In this type of germination, the cotyledons remain in the soil or just above the surface. Here the epicotyl elongates, pushing the plumule upwards. Cotyledons do not turn green and gradually dry up. e.g. pea, mango, groundnut, etc.
"The underground sequence was filmed over a period of a week with an 8 minute interval."
--from Neil Bromhall

Corn -- monocotyledons

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