(Previous post on Chemistry)
For the order in which we study, I am using Chemistry 101 by Wes Olson (also available for purchase at ChristianBook.com). Other resources below will be added in here and there as they match up.
• Exploring the World of Chemistry by John Hudson Tiner
[also available as pdf download]
• Periodic Table of Videos - a short video for every element! =)
• Khan Academy Chemistry - videos "roughly covering a first-year high school or college course."
• Jefferson Lab's online Element Games (LOVE THESE!!)
• Periodic Table download, 12-page set of printable worksheets. (I use a blank one for ds to fill in as we go, and an already filled in B/W one for me to cross off elements as we learn them.)
Interactive Periodic Tables to read more:
• Periodic Table 1 with info and pics; some have video clips.
• Periodic Table 2 with info and pics of examples of how each element is used.
• Periodic Table 3 with info and pics; hover over 'headings' to highlight areas on the periodic table.
For Younger Kids:
• Chem4Kids - Short articles. Click each tab across the top, then click the links on the side for that topic.
• Science Kids - Experiments, Videos, and more. Click each tab across the top, or scroll to see examples of what things are under the tabs.
THE ROAD TO THE PERIODIC TABLE
(1) Introduction & the Last Alchemist
[seven ancient metals, atoms, composition of air]
a. Tiner's Chemistry ch. 1, 2, 3
b. Periodic Table of Videos - lead, iron, tin, copper, silver, gold, mercury
c. Video: How to Read an Element on the Periodic Table
d. Video: Turn Pennies into Silver and Gold (Chemistry Trick)
Example of how I schedule:
Chem 101 DVD (45 min)
-PTOV – iron, tin, lead (16 min) LOVE the story on the lead video!
-Video: How to Read Elements on a Periodic Table - just in case (2:40 min)
-Look at color-coded PT and note the diff types of elements.
-Add above elements to blank PT (download here) Write symbol, atomic number, and atomic weight.
Tiner’s ch 1 Ancient Metals (remember to read Action & Reaction); Quiz
-PTOV – copper, silver, gold, mercury (30 min)
-Add these elements to blank PT.
Tiner’s ch 2 The Money Metals (remember A & R); Quiz
-7 ancient elements – make cards w/ info*
-Group all cards according to type and memorize them.
Tiner’s ch 3 The Search for Gold (and A & R); Quiz
-PTOV – carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, technetium, promethium (24 min)
-Video: Turning Pennies into Silver and Gold (Chemistry Trick) (2 min)
-Add these elements to blank PT.
Make additional cards; Put cards in their groups and memorize all so far.
Chem 101 DVD
Chem 101 text; Quiz
On blank elements chart (download here), we add any new elements with their symbols, atomic numbers, and atomic weights.*Preferably on another day (unless videos are short and/or there aren't a lot of elements), we make individual flashcards w/ element symbol, atomic number, and atomic weight.
We add info on back: Name of element, who discovered it (if info is available), when, contents (# of protons, electrons, neutrons), and what type (Alkali Metal, Noble Gas, etc.).
There will be a few more lines on the card for any additional info we think is interesting, or ways it can be used.
--In this chapter I left off the two experiments and essays from Chem 101, as he has already done those and knew exactly what was happening.
--Yes, I realize there are a few light days. On days like those, I try to coincide with heavy days in other subjects, and if necessary, will switch the order in which we do the lessons. Or I may do 3 lessons in 2 days, but this is my loose "template" for order of study.
(2) Birth of Modern Chemistry
[more elements discovered, measurement of amount of carbon exhaled, neither create nor destroy matter-Conservation of Matter, water is 2 gases, atomic theory, a guess that each atom has a different weight - led to Law of Definite Proportions]
a. PTOV - hydrogen, oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen (24 min)
b. Tiner's ch. 4
c. Hydrogen Balloon Experiment (Google) and Lab Report.
I don't know yet what will work best of what I've seen online so I've simply linked to a Google search. Ds, age 17, will do his own research and test various substances - a true experiment. Including research, the testing, and the lab report, I will allow 2-3 days for this as I see how long it takes. Might invite cousins over for the actual experiments. =) =)
►►Before mixing any chemicals that aren't instructed to do so in a textbook, check with local law enforcement to make sure you won't get into trouble. =)
d. Video: Live footage of the Hindenburg Disaster, May 6, 1937 (5 min)
(turn off annotations by clicking the gears symbol, lower right corner)
e. Video: Mythbusters - the Hindenburg (5 min)
f. The usage of Hydrogen instead of Helium; various hypotheses (see list of contents)
g. Video: Antoine Lavoisier - Conservation of Mass (4:40 min)
h. Simple articles on the Phlogiston Theory; and The Discovery of Oxygen (scroll down)
(3) The Bold Russian
[electricity, electrolysis, the thought that atoms "hooked" together, electrically neutral, metals are conductive, electricity holds atoms together, atomic weights and properties, beginning to see patterns in the physical properties of elements, the first periodic table, the Russian who boldly left a blank space in the Periodic Table because something didn't line up... yet.]
a. PTOV - Alkaline Earth Metals (36 min)
b. Alkali Metals (26 min)
c. Tiner's ch. 5
d. Colored Fire Experiment - research, lab report.
e. PTOV - gallium, aluminum, mendelevium (21 min)
-- Video: When gallium alloys with aluminum, the aluminum becomes as weak as tissue paper!
-- Article: aluminum vs aluminium
f. Tiner's ch. 6
(4) Lots of Mystery Rays
[cathode ray tubes, something in the atom must have a negative charge!, electrons, there must be a positive part also, "plum pudding model," accidental discovery of X-rays (this is so awesome), radiation rays, discovery that uranium is charged on its own, polonium, radium, curium]
(5) The Likeable Rutherford
[atomic ray gun, alpha rays (pos charge), beta rays (neg charge), ~cathode rays, electrons, and beta particles all the same thing = electrons; experiment to show atom was more complex than imagined; Geiger counter]
(6) The Periodic Table at Last
[what is radiation/radioactive decay; half-life; when elements are exposed to fire their gases give off a distinct 'fingerprint' of color; progressively, elements' positive charges increase by one (because they have one more proton - Hydrogen 1, Helium 2, Lithium 3...); prediction of more unknown elements]
• Read about the Periodic Table History.
(7) The Periodic Table - Main Group
[thorough explanation of why the periodic table is grouped the way it is; goes over the four outer columns - Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, Noble Gases, and the Halogens; the 11 elements that have odd abbreviations; other families in the Main Group - metals and non-metals, metalloids]
• Use Jefferson Lab to practice the element symbols. Choose areas to practice by clicking on Strange Symbols, Alkali Metals, Alkaline Earth Metals, etc.
(8) The Periodic Table - Quantum Mechanics
[Quantum...quantity... Quantum Mechanics: the science of the very small, the minimum amount; energy from electrons seems to come in distinct packaged quantities; matter is made of tiny packages-a quantity called an atom; models of the atom; the composition of the atom; shells, outer shell, electron shell capacity, valence electrons, bonding; columns with elements of a certain number of valence electrons tend to bond with other certain columns of elements; Lanthanoids; Actinoids]
(9) Neutrons, Isotopes, and Ions
[varieties of each element (diff # of neutrons but same # of protons) are isotopes of that element; atomic number, atomic mass; ions - an electrically charged atom (either + or -); anions (non-metal) and cations (metal)]
(10) Compounds and Molecules, Part 1
[(A) Element, Compound, or Molecule: cations (a metal) vs. anions (a non-metal); physical or chemical reaction; mixture/solution;
(B) Covalent & Ionic Bonds: (a) Covalent Bonds - sharing electrons; happens between two non-metals; liquids or gases; weak bond. (b) Ionic Bonds - giving electrons; happens between a metal and a non-metal; a solid; strong bond. (one place I looked up called it sharing and stealing, lol) (c) Metallic Bonds - happens between two metals; strong bond.]
• Covalent Bonds share; Ionic bonds "steal" lol. Here is an article w/ a chart.
• Cations vs. Anions: anions - anti; cations - pawsitive =) article w/ chart.
(11) Compounds and Molecules, Part 2
(12) Balancing Equations
• Practice balancing equations at Jefferson Lab.
(13) Essentials Wrap-Up
MEET THE ELEMENTS
(14) The Four Main Columns
(15) Non-Metals and Poor Metals
• What is an allotrope?
(16) Transition Metals
(17) Rare Earth and Radioactive Metals
(18) The Future of Chemistry, Part 1
(19) The Future of Chemistry, Part 2