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Biology 101: Chapter 6b, The 6th Day - Mankind, part 2 {circulatory, digestive, lymphatic, and endocrine systems}

Circulation Game
I found quite a few longer videos, so I assigned less reading. =)

Tip: We do our chapters in 4 weeks, with a class every 2 weeks.  Because of having more to do for Circulatory and for Digestive and not much for the other systems, I divided our classes with Circulatory and Endocrine Systems for the first class, and Digestive and Lymphatic Systems the next.

In addition to Biology 101:
• Circulation Game - 2 teams rather than individuals to help it go faster, and reduced the number of playing pieces that needed to be taken to their destinations.
See it here, the printables and instructions.
• Apologia Biology Exp. 5.1 Diffusion, and 5.2 Osmosis
• General Science Exp. 13.2, Stomach Acid and Antacids
• Label the Digestive System in class

Other Study Links
Label the Digestive System - drag and drop
(Soft palate, pharynx, larynx, and trachea are not mentioned, so don't forget to study those.)
Organs Game - rotate and drop the organs into position. (Thanks to Mr. Ford for this link)

The Circulatory System

(1) How a Normal Heart Pumps Blood -- The Children's Hospital of Philidelphia

All arteries flow away from the heart.
All veins flow to the heart.

Arteries branch out until they are tiny, thin-walled capillaries that themselves are thinner than a hair.
Capillaries eventually merge back together to form larger vessels called veins.

(2) Types of Blood Vessels -- eMedTV

We learned the blood flow in this order:
right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle, body
This video starts with the blood flowing from the right ventricle into the lungs.
Don't get confused -- the order is the same; this video just starts at a different point in the circuit.
(3) Path of a Red Blood Cell -- Encyclopedia Britannica

(4) The Respiratory System (blood cells are key for how we get oxygen)

►Food, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other wastes are able to pass in and out through the thin walls of the capillaries and of the cells.  In this way, food and oxygen get from the blood to the cells, and the wastes from cells get into the blood to be taken back to the kidneys or to the lungs for removal.
►I like what the circulation game directions said about the capillaries being right next to all the cells that need things, and as the "stuff" in the capillaries flows by, the cells can get what they need and put back what is no longer needed.
Like a conveyor belt outside your window with food - you put the trash out and take in what you need.
Example: capillaries all around the alvoli in your lungs. See image (source).

(5) 3D Animation of Working of Heart

(6) The Circulatory System -- Bozeman Science w/ Paul Anderson

►You probably know that as you swallow, a flap called the epiglottis closes over the trachea, preventing food or liquid from entering the trachea (windpipe).  Occasionally a bit gets in, and you have a coughing fit!
►Pulmonary means "of the lungs."
(7) The Lungs and Pulmonary System -- Kahn Academy

How does the "good" stuff and "bad" stuff know whether to go in or out of the cell?
The "stuff" tends to want to balance itself out.  Just like in the naked egg experiment. (Apologia Biology Exp. 5.2 Osmosis)  The egg will swell when immersed in distilled water, but will shrink when in Karo syrup.  The fluids inside the egg will go in or out of the egg to balance the density of fluid both inside and outside the egg membrane.   This is why when a person drinks ocean water, the water in their cells will move out of the cell by osmosis to the higher concentrated salt water, which can be fatal.

(8) Red Blood Cells -- Kahn Academy

Most arteries carry oxygenated blood, but at the heart, for a short distance, the pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood (with carbon dioxide in them) from the right ventricle of the heart to the capillaries surrounding the alveoli in the lungs.
►When the blood passes through these capillaries, the blood receives oxygen coming from the alveoli and "gets rid of" carbon dioxide which will then be exhaled out of the lungs.
This is sometimes called "exchanging oxygen" meaning "exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide."
People with asthma have a hard time breathing in deeply enough to get sufficient oxygen all the way to their alveoli. 
Most veins carry de-oxygenated blood, but for a short distance, the pulmonary vein carries the now-oxygenated blood from the capillaries around the aveoli back to the left atrium.  Then the aorta (a large artery) will start the oxygenated blood on its journey back out to all the cells in your body.

(9) Circulatory System and the Heart -- Kahn Academy

The Digestive System

Label the Digestive System game,
with a few tweaks and additions by me.  =)
-Digestive tract:  the pathway that food and liquids follow while passing through your body.
-Digestive system:  all organs that contribute to digestion, even if no food passes through them (such as the liver, the gallbladder, and the pancreas).

The Basic Process of Digestion
a. Ingestion:  the taking in of food
b. Physical Digestion:  chewing
c. Chemical/Enzyme Digestion:  Amylase in your saliva begins the initial breakdown of  starch/carbohydrates.  Carbohydrates are further broken down on into the digestive tract.  For fats/lipids and proteins, the initial breaking down happens on into the digestive tract.
d. Absorption: mostly takes place in the walls of the small intestine.
e. Excretion: removal of undigested material after all moisture has been absorbed back into the body by the colon.

(10) As you watch this 3 min. video, Organs of Digestion, notice the differences between:
       • soft palate and epiglottis
       • pharynx and larynx (Larynx isn't mentioned in the video, but is pictured here)
       • esophagus and trachea (windpipe)
"Within the respiratory system, air is first inhaled through the nose or mouth into the pharynx. From the pharynx, air is drawn through the larynx and trachea to make its way to the lungs." (source)
You can feel your larynx rise up during swallowing.  This causes the epiglottis to cover the larynx, which is the beginning of the path to the trachea (your windpipe).  The larynx is also called your voice box because it houses the vocal cords.
One of the cartilages that support the larynx is often referred to as the Adam's apple.

The small intestine has folds all along its inner surface as well as thousands of tiny villi.  This provides extra surface area for more absorption.
Much like a wall with lots of projections built onto it would take more paint than a flat wall.

Note: Carbohydrates are starches; Lipids are Fats.
(11) The Digestive System -- Bozeman Science w/ Paul Anderson

What are micronutrients and macronutrients?
Macronutrients are the structural and energy-giving caloric components of our foods that most of us are familiar with.  They include carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Micronutrients are the vitamins, minerals, trace elements, phytochemicals, and antioxidants that are essential for good health.
What is the difference between fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins?
Fat-soluble (lipid-soluble) vitamins (A, D, E, K) can build to toxic levels if you take too many.

The water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and the vitamin B group, such as pantothenic acid (B5)biotin (B7), and folic acid (B9).  
These last two (biotin and folic acid), as well as vitamin K (fat-soluble), are by-products of good bacteria in the large intestine.

Vitamin D can be taken in through food, but it also can be absorbed from the body's exposure to sunlight.
Vitamin K is also absorbed without being eaten in food.

►See a list of vitamins, and some foods that contain them.  No food contains just one vitamin, so you will see the same types of foods listed for more than one vitamin.
You will also see the names of the B group vitamins.

Colonoscopy (colon, scope)
In a colonoscopy, the doctor is looking for irregularities - small bumps that might grow and form cancer.
My mom passed away in August, 2011, from colon cancer.  When they did a colonoscopy in 2008, there was a large growth that nearly completely blocked the colon.  They were able to get it all, but the damage had been done, and cancer cells had already spread elsewhere in the body.
A colonoscopy doesn't sound like much fun, but it is really important.
(12) Colonoscopy Video Tour: Journey Through A Healthy Colon 

(13) Tim Hawkins' Colonoscopy Song, hahaha!

The Lymphatic System

Lymph vessels have points along the way called lymph nodes.
Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs of the lymphatic system.  See image of lymph nodes.
The lymphatic system has three primary purposes which you will learn in these videos.

(14) Why do we need a lymphatic system?

(15) How do lymphatic vessels move fluid?

(16) What is the lymphatic system's role in immunity?

More about B Cells and T Cells, and how they work.
(17) The Immune System

(18) Lipid and protein transport in the Lymphatic System

(19) What is actually in lymph?

The Endocrine System
The endocrine system refers to the collection of glands of an organism that secrete hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried toward a distant target organ.(Wikipedia)

(20) Endocrine Gland Hormone Review

(21) The Endocrine System

(22) Hormone Concentration Metabolism, and Negative Feedback

ATP is energy - remember that! =)
(23) Positive and Negative Feedback Loops

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