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Apologia General Science, Module 15, The Human Lymphatic, Endocrine, and Urinary Systems

What we did at Sahm-I-Am

Interactive Study Links 
-Lymphatic System
Lymphatic System Game - click and match
-Endocrine System
Endocrine System Game - click and match
Endocrine Glands Game - click and match
-Urinary System
Urinary System Game - click and match




(1)  p. 369-371, The Lymphatic System
How the lymphatic system works
The lymph system cleans out organisms and chemicals that it recognizes as disease-causing.

Body fluid is called lymph while it is in the lymphatic system.
Lymph flows in one direction - toward the heart.


Where your lymph nodes and lymph vessels are located.
The yellow spots are the nodes, and the white lines are the vessels.






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(2)  p. 372-375, Lymph Nodes
Swollen lymph nodes and sore throat?
Here's why.


The lymphatic system is composed of vessels lying next to the capillaries.
The lymph nodes clean the lymph before returning it to the body.



What to do if you're stopped up or have swollen lymph nodes.





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(3) 375b-377, Tears
The lacrimal glands produce tears that run through tiny tear ducts, then flow across the eyes.









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(4) 378-381, The Urinary System
Although the lymphatic system cleans out things it recognizes as disease-causing, the kidneys only clean out chemicals that become dangerous to the body when they reach certain levels.
See how the kidneys filter out some things (through nephrons) to keep them from reaching toxic levels, and let proper amounts be reabsorbed into the bloodstream.






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(5) 382-384, The Endocrine System
Hormones are released by endocrine glands, sometimes just called glands.

►The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland (both are types of endocrine glands).
Both are located below the brain.
The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master endocrine gland" since the hormones it makes control many other endocrine glands in the body.



Location and Function of the Endocrine glands



Animation of insulin and glucose.
Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas.
The pancreas, in addition to being a digestive organ, is also an endocrine gland.


Slower, more detailed explanation of insulin and glucose.


Other glands produce different hormones.
These ↓ are also controlled by the pituitary gland, the "master endocrine gland."
Adrenal glands -- "adjacent" means next to, and "renal" refers to the kidneys.  Adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys.  This is also where we get the word adrenaline.
Thyroid gland -- affects the basal metabolic rate.

Read your textbook for more information about these complex processes.