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Monday, March 12, 2012

Apologia General Science, Module 13, The Human Digestive System

From the printable digestive system link,
with a few tweaks and additions by me.  =)
What we did at Sahm-I-Am

Interactive Study Links:
Quizlet Flashcards
Label the Digestive System - drag and drop
(Soft palate, pharynx, larynx, and trachea are not mentioned, so don't forget to study those.)
Quiz Game part 1 - click and match
Quiz Game part 2 - click and match

Printable digestive system to use as a Poster Option in lieu of the Study Guide.  See suggestions at Debbie's site (top left).
See these and more at Debbie's Educator's Resources.  (Thanks, Debbie!)

(1) p. 321-322, The Process of Digestion

-Ingestion:  the taking in of food
-Physical Digestion:  chewing
-Chemical Digestion:  the salivary glands secrete saliva that breaks down starch (contains polysaccharides) into monosaccharides.
►For fats and proteins, the initial breaking down happens further on into the digestive tract.

-Digestive tract:  the pathway that food and liquids follow while passing through your body.
-Digestive system:  all organs that contribute to digestion, even if no food passes through them (such as the liver, the gallbladder, and the pancreas).


(2)  p. 323-325, The Human Digestive System

She doesn't mention the liver or gallbladder.
In this video, the gallbladder is green, and the pancreas is a long structure with "veins" -- like a long leaf.
The liver makes bile, and bile is stored in the gallbladder until needed.  The pancreas produces digestive enzymes and other things.


(3)  p. 326-328, The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus

►Watch this video:  Organs of Digestion - excellent animation and narrative

Play close attention to the differences between:
soft palate and epiglottis
pharynx and larynx (Larynx isn't mentioned in the video, but is pictured in your book)
esophagus and trachea (the opening to the respiratory system)

You can feel your larynx rise up during swallowing.  This causes the epiglottis to cover the larynx, which is the beginning of the path to the trachea (your windpipe).  The larynx is also called your voice box because it houses the vocal cords.
One of the cartilages that support the larynx is often referred to as the Adam's apple.
I have had laryngitis for a week, so my family is having to make phone calls for me, but when no one else is here, and I have to answer the phone, it is funny what others think I am saying!
In fact, whispering to my family here at home has even been quite comical!  =)
Class is tomorrow, so we'll see what happens!


(4) p. 329-335, The Stomach and Intestines

The small intestine has folds all along its inner surface as well as thousands of tiny villi.  This provides extra surface area for more absorption.
Much like a wall with lots of projections built onto it will take more paint than a flat wall.

Hydrochloric Acid is produced in the stomach.

Colonoscopy (colon, scope)
In this video, see the indention of the opening of the appendix - it really is part of the digestive tract!
In a colonoscopy, the doctor is looking for irregularities - small bumps that might grow and form cancer.
My mom passed away in August from colon cancer.  When they did her colonoscopy in 2008, there was a large growth that nearly completely blocked the colon.  They were able to get it all, but the damage had been done, and cancer cells had already spread elsewhere in her body.
A colonoscopy doesn't sound like much fun, but it is really important.


(5) p. 335-338, The Liver, Pancreas, and Gall Bladder

About 50% of enzymes are secreted by the pancreas.
The rest of the enzymes your body needs come from raw foods.  (That means fruits and veggies, not raw cookie dough, haha!)
Enzymes are only activated in water, so drink lots of water!


(6) p. 338-340, The Micronutrients

What are micronutrients?

What is the difference between fat-soluble (or lipid-soluble) and water-soluble?
Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) can build to toxic levels if you take too many.

Cute way to remember the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.

The water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C and the vitamin B group.
In your book, some are listed separately, but they ARE in the vitamin B group.  Pantothenic acid is B5, biotin is B7, and folic acid is B9.  
These last two (biotin and folic acid), as well as vitamin K, are by-products of good bacteria in the large intestine.

Vitamin D can be taken in through food, but it also can be absorbed from the body's exposure to sunlight.  Vitamin K is also absorbed without being eaten in food.
Both of these are fat-soluble.

►See a list of vitamins, and some foods that contain them.  No food contains just one vitamin, so you will see the same types of foods listed for more than one vitamin.
You will also see the names of the B group vitamins, and the ones that are named in your textbook.


  1. Wow! Amazing work! Thank you for sharing and making this blog public. We will be back next semester to use your wonderful resources. What a blessing. THANK YOU!

  2. Thanks, Heather. I started this blog a few years ago for my kids and their cousins, and it just grew! I'm so glad it's helping others. =)

  3. The liver, pancreas, and bladder video says "does not exist." Also the one directly underneath it. ��

    1. Thank you, Rachel! I am sorry there are missing videos.
      Those that say they "do not exist" or some such message with 'snow' are the ones that have been removed from youtube by the person who uploaded them, or removed by youtube, or the person or youtube may have closed their youtube account.
      I have left these in place so I will know where my "blanks" are, and what type of video to search for when looking for a replacement.
      If you see any you think will fit there, please do let me know! There are quite a few missing, and it will be a huge undertaking this summer.
      See this post:

  4. Thanks im a student and I use it for biology. I have to teach myself all of this and it wouldn't be possible without you website!!!


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