►This site was originally created for my kids and their cousins, because we did science together. We eventually added more friends and I ended up having science classes for five years. I am no longer adding to the site (since 2014), but will leave it up for others' use. I do post to facebook occasionally if I come across something to share. =)

►Please accept my apology for any broken links or videos that do not work. I am always disappointed when people take down their videos from YouTube. It makes it hard to find just the right replacement. And because the videos were posted years ago, I usually have no recollection of what the video was about.
I kept thinking I would have time after my kids graduated, but life has filled up my free time with new responsibilities. =)

►Please do not email, asking me to post your website link, or to review something to put on my site. Any resources posted on this site are things I had found on my own during my regular searching for material I needed at the time, and liked it well enough to post here. There have never been any affiliates on my site, and as it is no longer active, would not be worthwhile at this point. ;)
Thank you!

Apologia General Science, Module 10, Classifying Life

Butterfly on my son's finger
What we did at Sahm-I-Am

Students' Study Links
Quizlet M10
• Printable reference chart - The Five Kingdoms and their Cells: all cells are either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.

Parents/Educators or Students
Mold Terrarium
Turgor Pressure Lab
See these and more at Debbie's Educator's Resources.  (Thanks, Debbie!)
• Plant and animal cell songs ♪ ♫

Note:  You will sometimes see the words prokaryote and eukaryote, but you may also see prokaryotic or eukaryotic.  That is because one is used as a noun, and one is used as an adjective.
Like France and French.  Or America and American.
They are eukaryotes. (n.)  They are eukaryotic.  (adj.)
They are prokaryotes (n.)  They are prokaryotic.  (adj.)

Note:  All cells have a cell membrane (sometimes called a plasma membrane).  Think of a small balloon filled with jelly.  The membrane is the thin covering that keeps the cell together.  This cell membrane is what regulates what is allowed to be absorbed into the cell, and what goes out of the cell.
--Inside eukaryotic cells are many organelles (little organs), and these are also membrane-bound like the cell.  The DNA in eukaryotic cells is enclosed in a membrane-bound organelle called the nucleus.
--Inside prokaryotic cells is DNA, but there are no organelles, therefore no nucleus.  So the DNA can be seen all throughout the cell.
►►►But with few exceptions, the two kingdoms that also have a cell wall are primarily kingdom Fungi and kingdom Plantae.  These need the added stiffness of a cell wall on the outside of the membrane to keep the plant or mushroom standing upright.  The material for the cell walls of these two kingdoms is quite different from one another, as you could probably guess.

(1) p. 243-247, The Five-Kingdom System
All living things are made up of cells.
Some have many, many cells, and some have only one cell.  These are referred to as multi-cellular or single-cellular organisms.
The three basic kinds of cells are animal cells, plant cells, and bacteria cells.  All cells do not fit neatly into these categories as some are animal-like or plant-like.
No matter how many cells an organism has, or which of the three basic cells an organism has, all cells are either prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells have organelles (or tiny organs) like a nucleus, vacuoles, and other organelles.  The nucleus holds the DNA of eukaryotic cells.
Four of the five kingdoms have eukaryotic cells. (kingdoms Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia)
Prokaryotic cells contain no organelles.  The DNA does not have a nucleus to stay in.  Under a microscope, the DNA strands are visible throughout the cell.
Only one of the five kingdoms has prokaryotic cells, and that is kingdom Monera (bacteria).
SEE the difference

In this video, he says that many scientists believe that eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells, and I'm sure they do believe that.  However, they are wrong.  God created everything, and he did not need to use evolution.

►Monerans (kingdom Monera) is bacteria.  All bacteria have one cell.
►Protists (kingdom Protista) consists of algae and protozoa.  Protozoans all have one cell, and most algae have one cell.
Part 1

►Monerans have no organelles so their cells are prokaryotic.  The DNA is visible throughout the cell instead of being enclosed in a nucleus.  This is the only kingdom with prokaryotic cells.
She says blue-green algae is a Moneran.  According to Apologia's Biology book, blue-green algae is cyanobacteria, and is part of kingdom Monera. (p. 19, 2nd Edition)  
►Protists are mostly single-celled (the protozoa and most algae).  Whether single- or multi-cellular, all have organelles, so they are eukaryotic.  This kingdom has 2 subdivisions:  algae (with plant-like cells) and protozoa (with animal-like cells).
Part 2 Single-celled kingdoms Monera and Protista (Protists are mostly single-celled)

Kingdom Fungi examples: mushrooms and mold (multi-celled), and yeast (single-celled).  Whether single- or multi-cellular, all Fungi have organelles, so their cells are eukaryotic cells.
Fungi cannot make food.  They feed on dead organisms and are called decomposers.
The eukaryotic cells of fungi are unique.  You can read about them on the printable reference chart link at the top of this post.
Kingdom Plantae - The majority of plants are multi-cellular.  Their cells have organelles, so they are eukaryotic.
This is the only kingdom with true plant cells.  Some algae may appear to be like a plant, but are not.
Kingdom Animalia - Animals are multi-cellular.  Their cells have organelles, so they are eukaryotes.
Part 3 Mostly multi-celled kingdoms Fungi, Plantae; and multi-celled Anamalia


(2) p. 247-252, Kingdom Monera (bacteria)
The organisms that make up kingdom Monera are prokaryotes (have no organelles).  They have a single cell.  The cells in this kingdom are bacteria and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
See images.  Note that the DNA is visible throughout the cell, and there are no organelles.
Most, but not all, the members of kingdom Monera are pathogens (cause disease).

Bacterial Growth (multiplies a LOT in just one day!)

Cell Phone Bacteria

Salmonella invading a cell (Be sure to thoroughly cook poultry and eggs!)

White Blood Cell Chases Bacteria (Yay!)


(3) p. 252-254, Kingdom Protista (algae and protozoa)
Kingdom Protista is divided into two subkingdoms:  subkingdom protozoa and subkingdom algae.
Most members of kingdom Protista are single-celled.
Some members of this kingdom are pathogenic (cause disease).
All the members of this kingdom are eukaryotes.

Protozoa are mostly single-celled and move around like little animals.  They eat other organsims.  Their cells are animal-like.
Here are some members of subkingdom protozoa:

Amoeba Dinner!
Watch this amoeba eat.  It uses its pseudopod motion to move and engulf its prey.  To begin with everything moves slowly.  Then the prey realizes it is caught!

The euglena moves by whirling its flagella, drawing its cytoplasm into the center of the cell, then re-extending itself forward.

A paramecium moves by beating the tiny "hairs" on its edge.  These are called cilia.
Paramecia have an oral groove where they take in food.  You can see the oral groove around 40 seconds when it starts turning over several times.  The paramecium appears twisted unevenly so that there is a "ridge" midway along its body.  This is actually the oral groove.
The little "blobs" throughout are food vacuoles.  After a paramecium takes in food through the oral groove, it pinches off a little section with the food inside it.  This is now a food vacuole, and it will move to other parts of the paramecium, taking food to the whole organism.

                                                           ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 

I'm sure you have heard of algae before, but did you know that most algae are single-celled and must be seen with a microscope?
Some algae are quite a bit larger and look like plants.
They are not plants.
They do not have the specialized structures that plants have (roots, stem, leaves).  (See info on printable chart link at the top of this post.)  But they do have chloroplasts that are throughout the entire plant, and can make their own food by photosynthesis.
So their cells are plant-like.
Through the process of photosynthesis, algae produce way more oxygen for us than plants do!  About 75% of all the oxygen produced is from algae, and 25% is from plants.

Here are some members of subkingdom algae:

Green Algae (algae) and Volvox (protozoa)
I don't think Volvox "communicate" with each other.  I believe it is a God-given instinct that they just do what they are supposed to do.

Algae have chloroplasts, but protozoa do not.

When you see a green swimming pool, this is because the algae have reproduced quickly, causing an "algal bloom" and the water appears the color of the algae that is in the sides and bottom of the pool.
Bright green algal blooms are a result of cyanobacteria -- blue-green algae.
There is also an algae that blooms red, and this occurrence is called a "red tide."  A red tide is harmful.
In high concentrations, it paralyzes the central nervous system of fish so that they can't breathe.  Dead fish wash up on shore.  Only certain sea-life are immune to red tides, but they have absorbed the toxins, and it can be deadly to eat them from an area that has had a red tide.
Seafood restaurants do not serve these dishes when a red tide occurs in the area from where they get their food.
If you are near a beach where a red tide has occurred, you may experience stinging eyes and difficulty breathing.

Note:  Both kingdoms Monera and Protista are single-celled, or mostly single-celled.


Now we are getting into the kingdoms that have multi-celled organisms, or mostly multi-celled.

From our Biology class last year.
(4)  p. 255-258, Kingdom Fungi
Mushrooms, mold, yeast...  These are the more well-known organisms of this kingdom.

The cells of kingdom Fungi have organelles, so they are eukaryotes.
Most of these organisms are multi-cellular, such as mushrooms and mold.
Some, like yeast, are unicellular, or single-celled.
The cell walls of kingdom Fungi contain chitin (kite-in), which is like the exo-skeleton of insects.  (Plant cell walls are made of cellulose.)
Mushrooms are not plants.  They are fungi.

Regarding cells, per an email from Apologia:
"Kingdom fungi is a kingdom all to itself characterized by long strings of cells end to end, often without even having cell walls between the different nuclei, but even if they do they have free exchange of cytoplasm.  In short they are not plant cells, they are their own type cell."
I will try to explain.
Think of long tunnels branching off in many directions, with even more tunnels branching from them.  Each tunnel has dividers that nearly close off sections in the tunnel, and you can barely get through.
This is like the cell walls in mycelia (look like roots, but aren't).  Even with these cell walls, the cytoplasm can still move from one cell to another through these "pore" openings.  Some fungi have no cell walls, or no dividers in the hallways.
See image  (source)  (The spots are not whole cells, but nuclei.  The "dividers" are the cell walls.)
Also there is a drawing in the 2nd edition Apologia Biology on p. 99.
Go back and re-read the email paragraph.  It should make more sense now.

Fungi are decomposers (eat dead things) and since they do not make their own food, they are also called consumers.  (Plants do make their own food and are producers.)
Fungi do not eat with a mouth, rather they produce a digestive acid that breaks down the dead organism and "digests" it externally first so that the mycelia of the fungi can absorb it.
Mycelia is the plural of mycelium.

More Fungi

Budding of Yeast
Yeast is unicellular, and does not form mycelia.  But it still digests outside of the cell, then "eats" through absorption, just like mushrooms and mold.

Bread Mold also has mycelia (called hyphae in this video) and also digests outside the cells before absorbing its food.

I have a feeling boys will like this one.
Decomposition of a rabbit.  =\


(4) p. 259-262, Kingdom Plantae
The cells of kingdom Plantae have organelles, so their cells are eukaryotes.
The cells of this kingdom are plant cells.
See image (source)
Most all of these organisms are multi-cellular.
The cell walls of kingdom Plantae contain cellulose.

All cells have a cell membrane.  But outside a plant's cell membrane, there is also a cell wall.  
►see image (source)
The cell wall of plants is made of cellulose.  (The cell wall of fungi is made of chitin, which is tougher.)
There are three structures in a plant cell that pertain specifically to plant cells.  Even plant-like cells won't have all three.
  1. cell wall (for stiffness of the stem; also keeps cell from bursting if the central vacuole continued to fill)
  2. large central vacuole (for turgor pressure)
  3. chloroplasts (for photosynthesis)
Do you remember which one of these three that algae has?

Cell Walls

Turgor Pressure
Watch this video to see how the large central vacuole and the cell wall work together to create turgor pressure.
As the water vacuole fills, it presses against the cell wall, making the plant become more rigid.  This rigidness is known as turgor pressure.
(459 shots, made every 30 seconds for 3h 45m. He added about 1½ cups of water.)

Vegetative Reproduction
Plants usually reproduce by forming seeds.
Vegetative reproduction is when a stem grows new roots to develop into a mature plant.
The cut piece of plant is sometimes simply referred to as a "cutting."  My Mom used to grow a cutting for me now and then.  =)

►Another important thing to remember is that plants have specialized structures while algae do not.  In other words, plants have structures that each perform a special task.
(1) Roots take in water and minerals, (2) the stem transports these to the leaves, and (3) the leaves carry out photosynthesis.


(5) p. 262-263, Kingdom Animalia

The cells of kingdom Animalia have organelles, so their cells are eukaryotes.
The cells of this kingdom are animal cells.  (see image)
Most all of these organisms are multi-cellular.

There aren't any informative videos that I could find of kingdom Animalia, so here is a video simply for your enjoyment.  Love the flamingos at 3 minutes, haha.  =)

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