►This site was originally created for my kids and their cousins, because we did science together. We eventually added more friends and I ended up having science classes for five years. I am no longer adding to the site (since 2014), but will leave it up for others' use. I do post to facebook occasionally if I come across something to share. =)

►Please accept my apology for any broken links or videos that do not work. I am always disappointed when people take down their videos from YouTube. It makes it hard to find just the right replacement. And because the videos were posted years ago, I usually have no recollection of what the video was about.
I kept thinking I would have time after my kids graduated, but life has filled up my free time with new responsibilities. =)

►Please do not email, asking me to post your website link, or to review something to put on my site. Any resources posted on this site are things I had found on my own during my regular searching for material I needed at the time, and liked it well enough to post here. There have never been any affiliates on my site, and as it is no longer active, would not be worthwhile at this point. ;)
Thank you!

Graphing Linear Inequalities

To understand these videos (some go pretty fast), you must fully understand how to solve and graph linear equalities.  You must also know how to solve linear inequalities

You must be familiar with slope-intercept form (y = mx + b), and understand which numbers in the equation are m and b, and how to graph them.  Mark b on the graph, then graph the slope (m) from that point. 
Inequalities are very similar, with only a few differences:
  • It's not a line of solutions as in a linear equation; it is a solid or dashed boundary line that shows on which side all the solutions are.
  • Shade above or below the boundary line, showing on which side all the solutions are.
  • Change the direction of the inequality (>, <) if you divide by a negative number.
►These differences are explained in the fourth video.  It is fast, and it is good to pause the video to read the text on the board.
►Check your work by using (0,0) as a test point.  This will help you know if your answer is correct, and if you forgot to change the direction of the inequality.
These videos cover the same topic, but go about solving in slightly different ways.  I watched all of them, and gleaned a little more from each one.

(1) from YourTeacher.com - graphing using a table



(2) boundary line


(3) graphing using slope-intercept form, y = mx + b


(4) graphing using slope-intercept form.  He is fast, so pause and read the text on the board.


(5) graphing using slope-intercept form



Apologia Biology, Module 12, Phylum Arthropoda

M12 Recap blog post at Sahm-I-Am 
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M12 

Arthropods!  What are they???  Watch the first couple of videos to find out.  There are so many varieties that some don't even seem to fit in the same phylum.
►In this post, there are several videos that did not have an embed code, so I just posted the link.

Here's a review of a few terms if you are still not quite familiar with them.
  • Dorsal - referring to the back, or it might seem to be the top if the animal is not upright like a human, but it is its back.  Like a dorsal fin on the back of a fish.
  • Ventral - referring to the front, or belly-side of an organism.
  • Anterior - in front of, or the end that contains an organism's head.
  • Posterior - in back of, or the end that contains an organism's tail.
(Source)
A shark has an anterior dorsal fin and a posterior dorsal fin.  This indicates which is in front of the other; they are both on its back.
Something can also be "anterior to" another body part, meaning it is in front of it, and "posterior to" another body part would mean it is in back of it.


Remember the order of the biological classification:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
In this module, you will study phylum Arthropoda as well as a few classes and orders within this phylum.

(1) p. 361-364, General Characteristics of Arthropods
There is not a video that goes over the 5 characteristics, but here is what I could find.






(2) p. 365-371, Class Crustacea:  The Crayfish
Growing up, I always called these things crawdads.  =)
A crayfish swimming, trying to catch food.


►Learn the parts of a crayfish by studying the names of the parts on p. 365.
►Then with your book open to page 365, look in your book as the highlighted parts in this video are named.  Then go back and watch the video again and see if you can name the highlighted part before the words appear on the screen. The cephalothorax is called the thorax in this video. Actually, the head and thorax together make a cephalothorax. 
Around 2:10, the parts named are the ones labeled on p. 373 in the dissection.  Look there for comparing to the video.



(3) p. 371-372, Other Crustaceans
Lobster


Shrimp


►See baby shrimp being born around 0:50 seconds.

Crab at Costa Rica



Watch this crab run!

Barnacles "sweeping" the water to gather any plankton floating about.



(4) p. 373-375, Crayfish Dissection
►Draw and label Figures 12.2 (p. 365) and 12.4 (p. 368)
►At this website, click on each picture to enlarge and compare the labeled parts on the website to the labeled parts in the pictures in your Biology textbook on pages 365, 367, and 368.
Take your time in doing this. 
• If you'd like to watch a dissection, here is the External Anatomy and the Internal Anatomy.
• Also see the class dissecting crayfish at Applie's Place.




(5) p. 376-379, Class Arachnida (Spiders!)
Again, there are no videos that deal w/ the 5 characteristics of arachnids, one of which is that they have a cephalothorax instead of a separate head and thorax like insects.  So spiders only have two body parts while insects have three.  Insects and spiders both have an abdomen.
Trapdoor Spider


How do Trapdoor Spiders know when prey is near???





(6) p. 380, Classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda

 Giant Centipede (has 1 set of legs on each body segment)


► Watch this Millipede (has 2 sets of legs on each body segment)


(7) p. 381-385, Class Insecta

Grasshoppers breathe through spiracles, tiny holes along the abdomen.  There is one on each section.  In this video, they look like little dark dots.



Complete Metamorphosis
4 stages:  egg, larva, pupa, adult
The embedding was disabled by the person who posted these videos, so you will have to click on the links to watch.  These are simply amazing!!!
Monarch butterfly laying eggs
Monarch caterpillar growing
Monarch caterpillar changing into chrysalis
Monarch butterfly metamorphosis



Incomplete Metamorphosis
3 stages:  egg, nymph, adult
Preying Mantis life cycle





(8) p. 385-388, A Few Orders in Class Insecta

Order Hymenoptera:  Ants, Bees, and Wasps ("social" insects - live in colonies)



Order Coleoptera:  The Beetles
Bombardier Beetle


Giant Waterbugs carry their eggs on their backs.
Whirligig Beetles


(9) p. 389, Experiment 12.2, Insect Classification
Here are a couple of helpful links:
BugGuide.net
What's that Bug?


Solving Linear Inequalities

(1) from YourTeacher.com


(2) from PatrickJMT
Accompanying worksheet for this video.




Direct and Inverse Variation (finding the constant - k)

Direct Variation - as one value goes up, the other goes up accordingly.
Inverse Variation - as one value goes up, the other goes down.
►Accompanying worksheet for this video.

Algebra 2 - Direct and Inverse Variation from Yay Math on Vimeo.

At Virtual Nerd
How Direct Variation looks on a graph Very good!!!
What is Direct Variation or Directly Proportional? 
Constant of Variation - table
Solving a word problem - has a fraction


Modern Marvels - Wiring America

The telegraph and Samuel Morse, the benefits during the Civil War, connection with Europe by transatlantic cable, the buying of Alaska..... Alexander Graham Bell, telephone wires, switchboard operators..... Thomas Edison, electricity..... internet, sending "packets" through the network, Department of Defense - Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) wanted to send information between computers, Professor Len Kleinrock "created a program to to divide computer messages into packets" using the telephone lines, but changing the switches, binary code, wireless...



Anatomy & Physiology, L1 - Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

Anatomy is the study of the human body, all its parts, and how the parts are put together.
Physiology is the study of how these parts work.

Animal Cell


Plant Cell



Go to at least one of these links each day to study the organelles you are learning. 
♦ Centre of the Cell  Watch the moving parts of cells.  Click on the white circle connected to an organelle to see the name and function.  Very simple and easy to understand.  Does not include all the organelles, tho.  
 Cells Alive!  See if you can recognize and name all the organelles.  Read the organelles at the bottom and see if you can find them in the picture.  Hover your mouse over an organelle to see if you are correct.
♦ Virtual 3D Cell  Hover your mouse over the 3D cell.  Click on the organelles you are learning formore information and a closer view.  Some can zoom or rotate.  Some will open for you to see inside. If it says click next, click one of the arrows on the left. ►◄

DNA and RNA


►To practice what you've learned, go to the DNA Workshop
Click on DNA Workshop Activity, then in the pop-up window on the top right, click on Protein Synthesis.
Follow the directions to first build RNA, then match tRNA anticodons to mRNA codons to build proteins from the amino acids.
►Just for fun, you can try this DNA Extraction Virtual Lab.

Look here for examples of Incredible, Edible Cells:
2008, Michelle's class at Applie's Place
2009, Michelle's class at Applie's Place
2010, Michelle's class at Applie's Place
2010, Julie's class at Mindful Ramblings (scroll down.  You can click on the picture to enlarge.) 
I also like this cake made from a soccer ball pan and fondant.

Solving Systems of Equations (graphing, substitution, elimination/addition)

The reason for solving systems of equations is to find at which point will they intersect on a graph.
A "system" of equations is 2 equations where the x's in each equation equal the same number, and the y's in each equation equal the same number.
When you find what x and y equal, they are written in parentheses as an ordered pair like this:  (-3, 5) with the x always being written before the y.  If you graph the (-3, 5) -- use the slope-intercept form "rise over run" -- that is where the two graphed equations (lines on the graph) would intersect.

►After graphing, if lines are parallel they will not intersect.  The answer to this kind of problem is "no solution."  There is no point on the graph at which the lines will intersect.

►If the lines end up graphing as the same line, on top of one another, the answer is "infinite solutions" or "entire line."  In other words, ANY of the points on the entire line will work in both of the systems of equations.

►If the lines do intersect, the point at which they intersect is your answer.  You will write the answer as an ordered pair, such as (-2, 5).



A. Solving Systems of Equations by Graphing

(1) Solving Systems by Graphing (YayMath.org - my favorite math videos!)
►Accompanying worksheet for this video.



(2) Solving Systems by Graphing



(3) Solving Systems by Graphing [y-intercept (b) is zero]






B.  Solving Systems of Equations by Substitution

(4) YourTeacher.com - Solving Systems by Substitution



(5) YayMath.org - Solving Systems by Substitution
►Accompanying worksheet for this video (only do the Substitution method problems for now).






C. Solving Systems of Equations by Elimination

(6) YayMath.org - Solving Systems by Elimination/addition.
►Accompanying worksheet for this video.

"To 'eliminate' may make you think of the Terminator. But in Algebra, it's a method of solving two or more equations at the same time."  ~Yay Math!


(7) YayMath.org - Solving Systems by Elimination/addition.
►Accompanying worksheet for this video (use the last problem -- this is the rest of the video from #5 above).  Full video here.




Apologia Biology, Module 11, The Invertebrates of Kingdom Animalia

M11 Recap blog post at Sahm-I-Am
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M11 



In this module, we're learning about some of the animals without a backbone.  We've got another module about invertebrates, but this module covers some of the more squishy ones.  Some are not quite so squishy as others, and some have protective shells or other protection.
  • Invertebrates - animals that lack a backbone
  • Vertebrates - animals that possess a backbone
• Worms, jellyfish, and snails are invertebrates.
• Insects are invertebrates.  They have no backbone, but have an exoskeleton (a skeleton on their exterior).
• Crawdads (crayfish), lobsters, and shrimp are invertebrates and are classified as crustaceans.  They're kinda crusty.  =)
In the kingdom Animalia, there are way more invertebrates than there are vertebrates.  In fact, all the phyla in kingdom Animalia except one are invertebrates!  That's quite a few!
In this module, we learn about a few of the lesser-known invertebrates and a few you will recognize.



(1) p. 329-331, Symmetry
First let's learn a little about symmetry.  If something is symmetrical, it is usually thought of as being the same on both sides.  There is actually more than one type of symmetry.
  • Spherical symmetry is when an organism can be cut into two identical halves by any cut that runs through its center.  A ball has spherical symmetry.  That's easy, right?
  • Radial symmetry is when an organism can be cut into two identical halves by any longitudinal cut through its center.  This might be from the top, any cut.  Like an oatmeal box can be cut from the top by any cut running straight down through the center.
  • Bilateral symmetry is when an organism can be cut into two identical halves by a single longitudinal cut (only one option, not "any longitudinal cut" as in radial symmetry) along its center which divides it into right and left halves.
(Source)
If you think about the names of these types of symmetry, you can easily see why they are named this way.
A lot of things have bilateral symmetry.  You can probably look around and see a few things right off.  YOU even have bilateral symmetry.  Probably not exactly, as the two sides of everyone's faces are not an exact replica.  So these symmetry distinctions are not perfect.  Your internal organs are not the same on both sides of your body, either.

Notice the terms on the crayfish above:
  • Dorsal - referring to the back, or it might seem to be the top if the animal is not upright like a human, but it is its back.  Like a dorsal fin on the back of a fish.
  • Ventral - referring to the front, or belly-side of an organism.
  • Anterior - in front of, or the end that contains an organism's head.
  • Posterior - in back of, or the end that contains an organism's tail.
A shark has an anterior dorsal fin and a posterior dorsal fin.  This indicates which is in front of the other; they are both on its back.
Something can also be "anterior to" another body part, meaning it is in front of it, and "posterior to" another body part would mean it is in back of it.






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(2)  p. 332-335a, Phylum Porifera:  The Sponges
Did you know that sponges are animals?  Really!
They are not plants.  They can't think; they have no internal organs, no blood, no eyes or ears, but they can reproduce, digest food, and protect themselves.
If you have a sponge from the ocean, it is no longer living.  It would need to stay in the ocean in its environment to be able to eat and stay alive.
How a sponge eats:

Sponges have no symmetry.




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(3)  p. 335-341, Phylum Cnidaria
There are 2 Multi-media Companion CD videos to watch for this section.
Members of this phylum have two basic forms, polyp and medusa.
  • In the polyp form, the cnidarian (nih dahr' ee un) is tubelike with a mouth and tentacles at one end, and a basal disk at the other.  A basal disk just means it is circular at the base, often used for attaching itself to something, and there is no opening.  Like a stalk of celery.  
  • In the medusa form, it is free-swimming, with a bell-shaped body and tentacles.  (You may have heard of Medusa from Greek mythology -- ewww!)  It is in this form that we often think of the jellyfish, although a jellyfish has a polyp stage too.
►See diagram of a jellyfish life cycle.



Phylum Cnidaria has radial symmetry.

The members of phylum Cnidaria have some characteristics that are common to all members of this phylum.
Epithelium, mesoglea, and nematocyts, and more.
Read p. 356-357 to understand what they are.
If you've ever been stung by a jellyfish, you'll easily understand about nematocysts.  I've been stung by one, but it was mild thankfully.  I was in the Gulf of Mexico.  The waters there are so warm!  But where we were, there were plenty of jellyfish.  They looked like clearish-white blobs, aimlessly floating around under the surface of the water.  We loved the warm water!  But didn't stay in long because of the jellyfish.  =(
Cnidarians do not all sting because of being touched.  Some will only sting because of a chemical reaction.
A jellyfish or a hydra will sting anything they touch.  A sea anemone (uh nim' uh nee)will only sting because of a chemical reaction.  For this reason, it will not sting a clownfish for example.  Remember in Finding Nemo, clownfish would live IN a sea anemone.
Click for a video of nematocysts firing.

Hydra


Coral, Sea Anemone, Jellyfish






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(4) p. 342-347, Phylum Annelida
This phylum is made up of worms.  There are quite a few kinds of worms, so many in fact, that this phylum is made up of only one type - the segmented worm.  A worm that looks as if it is in segments, or little sections.  An earthworm is perhaps the most common; at least it's what I think of when I think of a segmented worm.  Which I do not think of very often!  =)

An earthworm has an anterior end, and a posterior end.  The anterior end is where the mouth is, and is usually a little more pointed.  The clitellum is located nearer to this end.
The posterior end is where the, um... posterior is located!  =D
(Look back up at the bilateral symmetry of the crayfish to see "anterior" and "posterior."  
Also know that "dorsal" fins are on the backs of fish, because "dorsal" means back.)
Just looking at the parts of an earthworm makes one realize there is much more to the earthworm than one might think!  Again, I marvel at the Creator and His designs.  =)


I could not find a video that goes over the feeding habits of earthworms, or the respiratory, circulatory, and reproductive systems.
So I guess you'll have to study.  < gasp! >  =D
Writing down your vocabulary words as you go will help a lot.


Here's a video of a close up.  You can see the setae, which are little bristles.  You may have felt them before.  This is what an earthworm uses to help him move.






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(5) p. 347b-350a, Experiment 11.3Earthworm Dissection
Earthworm Anatomy






After the dissection:
-Squirmin' Herman the Worm - review the parts, then do the quiz. (easy)
-See if you can label the parts of this worm. (a little harder)




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(6) p. 350-352, Phylum Platyhelminthes:  The Planarian

Wow, planarians are really flat!


Planarians have bilateral symmetry.




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(7) p. 352b-354, Phylum Nematoda
This phylum is made up of parasites.
The most common name for one parasite is ringworm.
Another is Trichinella spiralis, worms that live in the intestines of pigs and certain other game animals.  These can only be gotten rid of by extremely cold or extremely hot temperatures.  This is why it is important to practice careful handling of raw meat, and cooking it thoroughly.
In the Old Testament, there were certain laws that may seem drastic to us today.  They were not allowed to eat pork, for instance.
Leviticus 11:7 says, "And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you." 
But these laws were for protection.  God knew that people then did not have the means we do today to ensure correct processing of meat.




~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~





(8) p. 354b-356, Phylum Mollusca
This phylum contains many organisms besides snails, such as clams, oysters, squid, etc.
Snails are a good example.
Study your textbook for the different parts of a snail, then watch the snail use its radula to eat lettuce.


Close-up view of the radula and foot.




Graphing Linear Equalities using slope-intercept form (Rise over Run)

A steep hill has a greater slope than a gradual incline.
A steep roof may rise UP 10 inches to every 120 inches across ACROSS.  This would have a slope of 10/12.  In other words, it "rises" 10 inches as it "runs" 12 inches.  This would be an extremely steep roof!  
♦ The slope is 10/12, and to make the line on a graph, you would use rise over run.  You would start at 0 in the center of your graph having an x and y axis (see videos below), and rise 10, then run 12.  Draw a point here, then draw a line connecting this point to 0 on your graph.
♦ A more gradual incline (a less steep roof) might have a slope of 5/12.
This slope is called the pitch of the roof.  You must know what pitch you need when ordering tresses for a roof.


(1) YourTeacher.com - graphing a slope


(2) YourTeacher.com - graphing slope-intercept form
At this stage, you are not asked to identify what x and y specifically equal.  They actually equal all points along the line that was graphed.  
To determine specifically what x and y equal, you would need 2 equations, called a system of equations.  Where the 2 graphed lines intersect will be your answer.


(3) YourTeacher.com, converting to slope-intercept form; graphing


This method is called Slope-Intercept because it is graphed by first finding the point where the line will intercept the y-axis, and then finding the slope of the line using "rise over run" -- the number beside x in the equation.


►YourTeacher.com's Demo Lesson just happens to be about slope-intercept.  =)  These slopes are already graphed, and you learn how to figure the slope.
Click on Demo Lesson under the video.  The explanation is fast, but there is a help button. 

There are 4 videos for 4 example problems.
Then click on the buttons for the practice problems, and see if you know the answers.
Below the practice problem buttons, you can click to see a hint, or the answer, as well as show an explanation.
The volume icon gives an oral explanation of the practice problem you are on.
There is also a self-test. Click the problem number 1.  Click on MC to see the multiple choice answers.  Choose A, B, C, or D.
If you click on the wrong answer, you can click on the Notepad icon for an explanation.

Graphing Linear Equalities using a table

(1) Graphing Linear Equations, Part 1, Mr. Perez & Charlie
In the first problem, when the line is graphed, you notice that the line crosses the y-axis at (0,5), and crosses the x-axis at (5,0).  The points at which the line crosses the axes (pl. of axis) are called the x-intercept and the y-intercept.


(2) Graphing Linear Equations, Part 2, Mr. Perez & Charlie
Problem 2 continues in this video, and you can see the line crosses the x and y axes.
The x-intercept is at (3,0) and the y-intercept is at (0,-2).
Problem 3 shows the x-intercept at (6,0) and the y-intercept at (0,-4).


Is it a Function? Vertical Line Test

(1) Do these sets of ordered pairs (coordinates) represent a function?


(2) Vertical Line Test to see if a set of coordinates represent a function.


(3) More about why some sets of relations are not functions


Domain and Range

(1) Mindbites.com - It cuts off, but it does show how to find the domain and range from a set of ordered pairs.


(2) YourTeacher.com