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Friday, March 18, 2011

Apologia Biology, Module 13, Phylum Chordata

M13 Recap blog post at Sahm-I-Am 
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M13 

Members of Phylum Chordata have a vertebrae.  That is, some kind of vertebrae.  Some have a notochord, which is a tough, flexible material.  In fact, ALL members of this phylum have a notochord at some time in their existence.  Some will harden into a vertebrae, like humans.  =)
This difference is the first level of classification for this phylum.

Note:  Dissections are not only to learn about the parts and organs different animals, but to prepare the student for learning about human anatomy.  Since I know at least some of my students will not take the advanced biology, The Human Body, I have included a few things that pertain more to humans than the organism being discussed.  Also, I could not find a video about the circulatory system of a fish.  =D

Here's a review of a few terms if you are still not quite familiar with them.
  • Dorsal - referring to the back, or it might seem to be the top if the animal is not upright like a human, but it is its back.  Like a dorsal fin on the back of a fish.
  • Ventral - referring to the front, or belly-side of an organism.
  • Anterior - in front of, or the end that contains an organism's head.
  • Posterior - in back of, or the end that contains an organism's tail.
A shark has an anterior dorsal fin and a posterior dorsal fin.  This indicates which is in front of the other; they are both on its back.
Something can also be "anterior to" another body part, meaning it is in front of it, and "posterior to" another body part would mean it is in back of it.

Don't let these big words scare ya!
► Phylum Chordata (core DOT uh)
♦ Subphylum Urochordata (YER uh core DOT uh)  You're a core dotta, haha.  The members of this subphylum only have a notochord for the first part of their lives, during the larval stage.
♦ Subphylum Cephalochordata (SEF uh low core DOT uh).  This subphylum has organisms that will have a notochord all their lives.
♦ Subphylum Vertabrata - The notochords of this subphylum harden into a backbone before they are hatched or born.   

Which one are we?  Hint:  We don't have a larval stage.  =)

(1) p. 393-394, Subphylum Urochordata
Sea Squirt

(2) p. 395, Subphylum Cephalochordata

(3) p. 396-398, Subphylum Vertebrata; The Endoskeleton
Spongy bone, as it is called in your text, is also called cancellous bone.

Osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, periosteum
Osteo/osteum refers to bone.   
Cytes refers to cells.   
Peri refers to surrounding something, like the word "perimeter."
  • Osteoblasts are the bone cells that help build new bone matrix.
  • Osteoclasts are the bone cells that break down old bone so that new bone can be formed, often for growth or remodeling.
  • Osteocytes are mature bone cells that are surrounded by the bone matrix.
  • Periosteum is a tough thin membrane that makes up the outer layer of bone.  It is filled with nerves and blood cells that supply oxygen and nutrients to the cells in the bone, and when you break a bone, the periosteum feels pain. 

Put this skeleton back together

(4) p. 399, The Circulatory System
A closed circulatory system is one where the blood is enclosed in blood vessels.
Arteries, Veins, Capillaries of humans

(5) p. 400-401, The Nervous System
The lobes of a human brain.
The cerebrum consists of the majority of the brain, made of different lobes.
The other part is the cerebellum.
►Scroll down to see an image of brain lobes.  Read about their functions.

Brain and spinal cord.
The spinal cord is the bundle of nerves that extend from the brain and make up the central nervous system.  The spinal cord is protected since it runs down the center of the vertebral column.

Spinal cord and nerves.
The spinal cord is enclosed by the vertebrae.  Arteries, veins, and nerves branch out from the spinal cord.
The cartilage between each vertebra is for cushioning and also allows you to tie your shoes!  =)
See how the nerves come from your spinal cord to your whole body.

(6) p. 401-402, Reproduction
Oviparous (development in an egg, hatched outside the female's body)
Ovoviviparous (development in an egg, hatched inside the female's body)
Viviparous (development inside the female, gains nutrients, etc. though the placenta)

(7) p. 403-404, Class Agnatha (jawless fish)  Lol, Agnatha talked so much, her jaw deteriorated.

(8) p. 409-413, Class Osteichthyes (bony fish)
Remember, osteo refers to bone.  Ichthyes means fish.
Circulatory system of humans

Bronchial tubes end in bronchioles, which end in alveoli, which are air sacs where the oxygen exchange takes place.  (It kind of looks like broccoli trees.)
If someone has asthma, because of the swelling of the bronchial tubes he is only able to take shallow breaths.  He will not be able to "exchange oxygen" sufficiently because the oxygen he is trying to breathe in would not get all the way to the aveoli where the exchange between oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
It feels like closing your nose and breathing with your mouth through a thin straw while something is constricting your chest and lungs. 

How your lungs put oxygen back into oxygen-depleted blood.

(9) p. 416-419a, Perch Dissection
►Awesome labeled perch dissection.
(You can also view the unlabeled perch to see if you can name everything.)
rice crispy, fondant-covered, dissected perch at Applie's Place.  She did an awesome job!

(10) p. 419-422, Class Amphibia
Amphi means both sides; bio means life.  Anphibia means dual life.

(11), p. 422, Frog Dissection
►Awesome virtual frog dissection.  Wish I could find something this good for all the dissections.  =)
At the top right, click on Demo.
You will be told different buttons to click on.  As you hover over the buttons, the name of that button appears at the bottom of the screen.  Body parts will do the same thing, so you'll know if you are on the right part.

►See the Applie's yummy frog!  I'm not that creative.  =D


  1. Marty, I really wanted to thank you...this blog and videos has been not having to reinvent the wheel and has really helped our homeschool biology class :) Thank you for being a blessing Amy


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