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Sunday, February 27, 2011

Apologia Biology, Module 12, Phylum Arthropoda

M12 Recap blog post at Sahm-I-Am 
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M12 

Arthropods!  What are they???  Watch the first couple of videos to find out.  There are so many varieties that some don't even seem to fit in the same phylum.
►In this post, there are several videos that did not have an embed code, so I just posted the link.

Here's a review of a few terms if you are still not quite familiar with them.
  • Dorsal - referring to the back, or it might seem to be the top if the animal is not upright like a human, but it is its back.  Like a dorsal fin on the back of a fish.
  • Ventral - referring to the front, or belly-side of an organism.
  • Anterior - in front of, or the end that contains an organism's head.
  • Posterior - in back of, or the end that contains an organism's tail.
A shark has an anterior dorsal fin and a posterior dorsal fin.  This indicates which is in front of the other; they are both on its back.
Something can also be "anterior to" another body part, meaning it is in front of it, and "posterior to" another body part would mean it is in back of it.

Remember the order of the biological classification:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
In this module, you will study phylum Arthropoda as well as a few classes and orders within this phylum.

(1) p. 361-364, General Characteristics of Arthropods
There is not a video that goes over the 5 characteristics, but here is what I could find.

(2) p. 365-371, Class Crustacea:  The Crayfish
Growing up, I always called these things crawdads.  =)
A crayfish swimming, trying to catch food.

►Learn the parts of a crayfish by studying the names of the parts on p. 365.
►Then with your book open to page 365, look in your book as the highlighted parts in this video are named.  Then go back and watch the video again and see if you can name the highlighted part before the words appear on the screen. The cephalothorax is called the thorax in this video. Actually, the head and thorax together make a cephalothorax. 
Around 2:10, the parts named are the ones labeled on p. 373 in the dissection.  Look there for comparing to the video.

(3) p. 371-372, Other Crustaceans


►See baby shrimp being born around 0:50 seconds.

Crab at Costa Rica

Watch this crab run!

Barnacles "sweeping" the water to gather any plankton floating about.

(4) p. 373-375, Crayfish Dissection
►Draw and label Figures 12.2 (p. 365) and 12.4 (p. 368)
►At this website, click on each picture to enlarge and compare the labeled parts on the website to the labeled parts in the pictures in your Biology textbook on pages 365, 367, and 368.
Take your time in doing this. 
• If you'd like to watch a dissection, here is the External Anatomy and the Internal Anatomy.
• Also see the class dissecting crayfish at Applie's Place.

(5) p. 376-379, Class Arachnida (Spiders!)
Again, there are no videos that deal w/ the 5 characteristics of arachnids, one of which is that they have a cephalothorax instead of a separate head and thorax like insects.  So spiders only have two body parts while insects have three.  Insects and spiders both have an abdomen.
Trapdoor Spider

How do Trapdoor Spiders know when prey is near???

(6) p. 380, Classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda

 Giant Centipede (has 1 set of legs on each body segment)

► Watch this Millipede (has 2 sets of legs on each body segment)

(7) p. 381-385, Class Insecta

Grasshoppers breathe through spiracles, tiny holes along the abdomen.  There is one on each section.  In this video, they look like little dark dots.

Complete Metamorphosis
4 stages:  egg, larva, pupa, adult
The embedding was disabled by the person who posted these videos, so you will have to click on the links to watch.  These are simply amazing!!!
Monarch butterfly laying eggs
Monarch caterpillar growing
Monarch caterpillar changing into chrysalis
Monarch butterfly metamorphosis

Incomplete Metamorphosis
3 stages:  egg, nymph, adult
Preying Mantis life cycle

(8) p. 385-388, A Few Orders in Class Insecta

Order Hymenoptera:  Ants, Bees, and Wasps ("social" insects - live in colonies)

Order Coleoptera:  The Beetles
Bombardier Beetle

Giant Waterbugs carry their eggs on their backs.
Whirligig Beetles

(9) p. 389, Experiment 12.2, Insect Classification
Here are a couple of helpful links:
What's that Bug?

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