New to my site? Have links you want me to share? Products to offer? Click here.

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Apologia Biology, Module 6, The Cell

Animal Cell Pizza!
The Secretion Vesicle looks like someone took a bite, haha!  =)
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M6, part 1
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M6, part 2
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M6 
M6 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am
Read Julie's Tip for learning the vocabulary.

Go to at least one of these links each day to study the organelles you are learning. 
♦ Centre of the Cell  Watch the moving parts of cells.  Click on the white circle connected to an organelle to see the name and function.  Very simple and easy to understand.  Does not include all the organelles, tho.
♦ Cells Alive!  See if you can recognize and name all the organelles.  Read the organelles at the bottom and see if you can find them in the picture.  Hover your mouse over an organelle to see if you are correct.
♦ Virtual 3D Cell  Hover your mouse over the 3D cell.  Click on the organelles you are learning for more information and a closer view.  Some can zoom or rotate.  Some will open for you to see inside. If it says click next, click one of the arrows on the left. ►◄ 

Games, etc:
Cell Quiz
Plant cell
Plant and animal cells
♦ Words to Plant and Animal cell songs.

Look here for examples of Incredible, Edible Cells:
2008, Michelle's class at Applie's Place
2009, Michelle's class at Applie's Place
2010, Michelle's class at Applie's Place
2010, Julie's class at Mindful Ramblings (scroll down.  You can click on the picture to enlarge.)
I also like this cake made from a soccer ball pan and fondant.

(1) p. 161-163, Cellular Functions
There are 11 functions of plant and animal cells listed in this first section of Module 6.  Three of the functions aren't listed as a vocabulary word, but they are in bold print in the text.
Some functions both plant and animal cells perform; other functions are specific to only animal or only plant cells.  

I couldn't find a video that covered this very well, so here is an overview of cells. 


(2) p. 164-166a, Cell Structure... The Cell Wall... The Plasma Membrane
Near the bottom of p. 164, it says, "...cells are small for a reason... the volume of materials in a cell increases with the cube of the radius of the cell."  After a brief introduction, he explains why cells are small and will not keep growing larger and larger.

Plasma Membrane


(3) p. 166-167a, The Cytoplasm

►Watch this short video about the cytoplasm.  Scroll down a bit.

Cytoplasmic Streaming (remember, cyto means cell) is the movement of the cell's cytoplasm, transporting things such as nutrients, proteins, etc.  
You will soon learn about active transport and passive transport.   

Here is cytoplasmic streaming in the chloroplasts in a leaf.  You don't need to watch it all.


(4) p. 167-174, various parts of a cell

This video covers several organelles in the cell, but not in the order they are in your textbook.
p. 167-168, and 171
Endoplasmic Reticulum/ER, Ribosomes, Gogi Body (same as Gogi Apparatus)
Lysosomes, Mitochondrian 

p. 169
Vacuoles and Vesicles

Also listed in your text is the vocabulary word Phagocytosis.
Phago- means to eat or engulf; cyto- or means cell.
This should help you remember what a Phagocytic vacuole is as well.  (The ic on -cytic is the adjective part that means having to do w/ cells)
Read your definitions and study all your diagrams!  =)

p. 172-173
Centrioles and Cytoskeleton
Oddly, I found a strange video that goes over the 2 remaining organelles the above videos didn't cover.

Plant Cell

► Play this Cell Quiz.  Play it several times if you like.


(5) p. 175-176Experiment 6.1, Cell Structure I  
My Class:  Look here at onion cells (the first 3 pics), and on the blank, unlined lab sheet I gave you, draw each magnification.  Label which magnification each picture is. 


(6) p. 176-180, How Substances Travel In and Out of Cells

Before watching these videos, study Figure 6.7, The Construction of the Plasma Membrane.

Remember, lipids are fats, and repel water.
Part of a phospholipid (see image) is attracted to water, and part is repelled by water.  This causes the phospholipids to arrange in such a way as to make up the plasma membrane of a cell.

The Plasma Membrane

Passive Transport and Active Transport.
Active Transport requires energy, called ATP.

Animal Cell
Near the end, see the centrioles. In the Animal Cell Pizza picture at the top of this post, we used pieces of celery to represent the centrioles.

Examples of Passive Transport
►Remember diffusion and osmosis - scroll down and read the part that is below the pictures of eggs.
Remember, osmosis occurs in an attempt to "even up" the concentration or dilution of solutes in the water on both sides of a semi-permeable membrane, such as the membrane of a raw egg or of a cell.

Watch three videos:  

(a) Isotonic solution - a cell is said to be in an isotonic solution when the amount of concentration in the cell is equal to amount of concentration that is in the solution the cell is in.
Your kidneys get rid of excess solutes in the blood to ensure that the bloodstream stays isotonic with your red blood cells.  
Evolution?  I think not.  Or you'd be dead before you "adapted" to everything that is necessary to live!

(b) Hypertonic solution - the amount of concentration in the solution (that the cell is in) is greater than the amount of concentration that is in the cell itself. This causes the cell to lose water because the cell's water is drawn toward the higher concentration that is outside of the cell.
This causes the cell to shrink in on itself or implode (opposite of explode).
This collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm (remember, cyto means cell) due to a lack of water is called plasmolysis  
This is why when a person drinks ocean water, the water in their cells will move out of the cells by osmosis to the higher concentrated salt water, which can be fatal.

(c) Hypotonic solution - the amount of concentration in the solution (that the cell is in) is less than the amount of concentration that is in the cell itself.  This causes the cell to absorb more water and swell up due to osmosis, and causes the cell to explode.
This rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure is called cytolysis.  (remember, cyto means cell)  

(a) Red blood cells in an isotonic environment

(b) Red blood cells in a hypertonic solution causes plasmolysis (the cell implodes and shrivels)

(c) Red blood cells in a hypotonic solution causes cytolosis (the cell explodes)


(7) Experiment 6.2, Cell Structure II  p. 181-182 

My Class:  
We don't have a microscope, so use these links that show a small cut out piece of a leaf, with its layers.
Leaf 1, Leaf 2, Leaf 3

On the blank lab sheet you were given, draw a diagram of a cut view of a leaf.  You may use different parts from either of the diagrams at the links.

►►Label these parts:
xylem, phloem, and vein, | stoma and guard cells, | and the chloroplasts.
•The chloroplasts are not labeled in the above diagrams of the cut leaves.  However, I bet you can find them.  They are green, and they are in the palisade layer.  The little dots are the chlorophyll that is in the chloroplasts.

1-6. On the back of your page or on a separate lab report page with lines, briefly explain (in your own words, not mine that I typed here) what each of those ↑ 6 parts do.
7. Also explain what plasmolysis does.
8. From the videos above, tell what word is the opposite of plasmolysis?

•Xylem (zy' lum) and phloem (flow' um) tubes are together in a vein
•The xylem tubes transport water and minerals (that are taken in by the roots) up throughout the plant.
•The plant makes glucose in the chloroplasts that are in the leaves.  The phloem tubes then transport the glucose down to all parts of the plant.

How to remember which way xylem and phloem flow.

•The stomata (sing. stoma) are openings on leaves that allow carbon dioxide to enter the plant and oxygen to exit the plant, as well as the release of water vapor. 
•Pairs of guard cells on the leaf open and close the stoma to control this process.  They open or close depending on if they are full of water or not.  Remember from p. 169 that turgor pressure from being full of water helps keep a plant rigid.  The same applies to guard cells.

This celery regains turgor pressure as the vacuoles in each of its plant cells fill with water.

Stomata on leaves are usually open during the day during photosynthesis, and closed at night.  Sometimes stomata close during the day if it is too hot and the plant starts losing too much moisture.  At these times, photosynthesis ceases.
►See image of guard cells when they are open and when they are closed.

Remember the video that is posted above of Cytoplasmic Streaming.  (Sometimes putting a leaf in warm bright light will cause the streaming to begin.)
Adding salt water (high concentration of solute) will cause osmosis, and the cells will begin to lose their cytoplasm.  This is called plasmolysis. (animation) When you see a plant wilt, it is beginning to experience plasmolysis, though not from salt water; just from a lack of water.
Watering a plant can reverse plasmolysis, and the plant will once again "stand up" due to turgor pressure.
In this video, you can see the process of plasmolysis begin around 40 seconds.


(8) p. 182-185, How Cells Get their Energy

►An excellent animation of Cellular Respiration.
Click on The Big Picture, then the play icon.
When you watch each of the steps of Cellular Respiration, there are various checkpoints to see what you remember.
This animation combines Step 2 and 3 below↓ into the Krebs Cycle.
These animations are not exactly like Apologia Biology, but it will help you understand the process.

--The purpose of Cellular Respiration is to make energy.  Your cells constantly make energy through a series of steps, divided into stages.  There are four stages of Cellular Respiration, and in each stage there are molecules that react together in a chemical reaction that produce other molecules as products. 
--In a chemical formula, the reactants (the molecules that react together) are on the left of the arrow, and the products (the molecules that are produced from the reaction) are on the right of the → arrow.
--In each stage of cellular respiration, some products from the previous stage (or more than one previous stage) are now used as reactants to make new products in the current stage.

Like factories make ingredients, and a baker might take only some of those ingredients to now bake bread, then you might take only 2 slices of that bread and make a sandwich. But the leftovers are still there in the end.
Watch for which products are used as reactants in the next stage(s), and which products are "saved" to be used in a later stage.

Aerobic cellular respiration is the converting of glucose into a usable form of energy.  This energy is stored as adenosine triphosphate, or ATP.  It is called aerobic cellular respiration because this means of cellular respiration uses oxygen.
The general equation for cellular respiration is:
1 glucose molecule + 6 oxygen molecules (after a very complicated series of steps) will produce → 
6 carbon dioxide molecules, 6 water molecules, and about 36 molecules of ATP (energy).
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO26H2O + energy
Do you recognize these molecules?  This is the reverse of photosynthesis!
Now we will discuss a little about those very complicated steps.  =)

The first stage of cellular respiration is (1) glycolysis, or the breaking down of glucose. This takes place in the cytoplasm.
The other three stages take place in the mitochondrion.
They are (2) the formation of acetyl coenzyme A, (3) the Krebs cycle, and (4) the electron transport system.

The purpose of cellular respiration is to get energy, but right from the beginning, the first stage uses 2 ATP's as a "push" to get going, the activation energy.  This is like an investment because in the end, about 36 ATP's are finally produced..

Stage 1 Glycolysis 
A monosaccharide molecule goes into the cytoplasm where enzymes catalyze (speed up) a reaction that causes the monosaccharide molecule to lose some hydrogen atoms and convert one molecule of glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvic acid (sometimes called pyruvates) with some hydrogen (H) left in the product as well.  Two ATP's are used to get this process started.  It also produces 2 more ATP's (energy).
C6H12O6 → 2C3H4O3 + 4H + energy
  glucose        pyruvic acid               2ATP's

Stage 2:  The formation of acetyl coenzyme A
The 2 molecules of pyruvic acid head to a mitochondrion.  As they cross into the mitochondrion, the pyruvic acid molecules are broken down, freeing carbon dioxide and hydrogen (which are products in the formula below).  Then something new is introduced.  Two proteins (called coenzyme A) attach to the remains of the pyruvic acid, forming 2 acetyl coenzyme A's.  (The - sign in the formula below does not mean minus.  It means it is attached.)  Two other products of this chemical reaction are carbon dioxide and hydrogen.  This stage is sometimes called the "oxidation of pyruvic acid."
The coenzyme A's are neither used up nor produced.  They simply cycle through the stages of respiration.
No additional ATP is formed in this stage.
2C3H4O3 + 2(coenzyme A) → 2C2H3O-(coenzyme A) + 2CO2 + 2H
pyruvic acid         a protein                        acetyl coenzyme A

Stage 3:  The Krebs Cycle
This is the first stage that uses oxygen.  The 2 molecules of acetyl coenzyme A react with oxygen to make hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and coenzyme A again.  This is actually a summary of a very long, complicated procedure (like this explanation isn't complicated?!?)  =)  Two ATP's are also produced. 
2C2H3O-(coenzyme A) + 3O2 → 6H + 4CO2 + 2(coenzyme A) + energy 
      acetyl coenzyme A                                                               proteins              2ATP's
Stage 4:  The electron transport system
The hydrogen from the previous three stages reacts with oxygen to make water and energy. This stage produces the most energy of all four stages.  Thirty-two ATP's, for a total of 36.
12H + 3O2 → 6H2O + energy
                                          32 ATP's

In each stage, you need to look at the product and see what of that is used in the next stage, and what is not used.
•In stage 1, glycolysis, the products are 2C3H4O3 (pyruvic acid), 4H (hydrogen), and 2ATP's (energy).
The 2C3H4O3 is used as a reactant in the next stage, but the 4H and 2ATP's are not. (so we "save" those in our mind)
•In stage 2, the formation of acetyl coenzyme A, the products are acetyl coenzyme A, 2H and 2CO2 (carbon dioxide).
The acetyl coenzyme A is used as a reactant in the next stage, but the hydrogen and carbon dioxide are not.  (add those to your total so far)
[note here that in stage 2, two coenzyme A's are used, and in stage 3, two coenzyme A's are produced.  The net result is that nothing changed.  Two coenzyme A's will be produced and used over and over again with each full cycle of cellular respiration.]
•In stage 3, the Kreb's cycle, excluding the coenzyme A's, the products are 6H, 4CO2, and 2ATP's.  The 6H (as well as the previously produced 4H and 2H) will now be used as reactants in the last stage, and 3O2 (oxygen molecules) are also added in as reactants in the formula.  The 4CO2 and 2ATP's are not used as reactants in the last stage.
•In stage 4, the electron transport system, all the 12H are used as well as 3 more O2. 6H2O (water molecules) are left, and 32ATP's are produced.

We started with one glucose molecule, and along the way added 3 oxygen molecules, then 3 more.
Here is total what was used, and what is left:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO26H2O + energy (36ATP's)
This is cellular respiration, and the formula is the opposite of photosynthesis.
In cellular respiration, we use glucose and oxygen in our bodies.  We get carbon dioxide (which we breathe out as a waste product), water, and energy.  Our catalyst to speed up this process is enzymes.
A plant uses the energy from the sun, carbon dioxide, and water to produce glucose for itself, and gives off its waste product of oxygen.  Remember, the catalyst for plants is chlorophyll.
There is a video on the MMCD, but you really need to study your textbook first, and what I have written here.


(9) p. 186-189 ATP and ADP
Adenosine Triphospate (one adenosine and three phosphates)
Adenosine Diphosphate (one adenosine and two phosphates)

Synthesized means produced.
Making ATP from ADP in the Mitochondrion

►Please watch this very thorough video of How Cells Obtain Energy.


  1. Awesome post, very thorough! Love the clip from Bill Nye the Science Guy!

  2. Again, Marty, you have saved the day. I feel like I could be a contestant on Jeopardy after going through this post (as long as the topic is Cellular Respiration). = )

  3. Thanks, Jen!
    And if you ever are on Jeopardy, do please let me know! ;)

  4. Wow! Thanks so much for all of your help with this crazy module!! There is just so much information and your work at compiling all of the videos makes the teaching that much easier...

    1. You're welcome! Yes, I agree this was definitely a crazy module!! =D


Thanks for leaving a comment!
If you choose Anonymous, please leave a first name.