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Sunday, October 24, 2010

Apologia Biology, Module 5, The Chemistry of Life, Part A

Module 5, Part B
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M5 
M5 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am 

Wow.  I am once again amazed as I read this module and see how complicated Life really is, knowing that this just scratches the surface of the complexities of God's creation.

(1) p. 125-128  Atoms: The Basic Building Blocks of Matter
Atoms & Electrons 

The Structure of an Atom. I think at 4:00 minutes, he may have meant that "electrons would be like little pieces of dust flying around."

►Click to play an Elements Math Game
►Uncheck Neutrons and Nucleons, unless you are familiar with these.
Choose how many you would like to practice.  Play as many times as you like.

(2) p. 128-129  Elements
Memorize Table 5.1 on p. 129.
Be able to name them without looking.  Know how to spell them correctly.
These are important, and you will see these six elements mentioned several times throughout the module. 
You need to know the difference between S-32 (or ³²S) and just plain S, and other elements and atoms like these.  Be able to explain in sentences what the differences are.
►And know what the number 32  means.  Or whatever number is written with any atom.
►Click to play the Elements Math Game again.  This time, only uncheck Nucleons. 

The Elements 

►See this awesome chart of the Periodic Table of the Elements with pictures!

(3) p. 130-131  Molecules
Remember, ³²S or S is only one element - Sulfur.  Some elements do have two letters (such as Fe), but only the first letter is ever capitalized.  That is how you know how many different elements there are in a chemical formula.
►How many different kinds of elements are in CO2?  (Two - Carbon and Oxygen)
How many elements are in Nb2O2? (Two)
►How many total atoms are in  CO2?  (Three - 1 of Carbon and 2 of Oxygen)
So how many atoms are in Nb2O2? (Four)

Atoms in Molecules 

►Is CO2 the same as ²CO?
One of these is not anything.  Which is it?  Why?
►Is  CH4 an element, atom, or a molecule?  Why?

(4) p. 133-138 Physical Change
Diffusion and Osmosis
Video explaining Diffusion - then take the quiz! (more videos on the side)
Thanks to Julie for posting this link.  =)

(note: In this video, he says hypertonic and hypotonic - two different words)
In both diffusion and osmosis, the concentration of solute is evened out in the solvent, but in different ways.  

►In your notebook, draw, label, and write the descriptions of Figure 5.2, The Difference between Diffusion and Osmosis.
Draw the beginning and end stages for both Diffusion and Osmosis. 
(1) the dividing membrane (solid line for semipermeable ( ___ ), dashed line (- - -) for fully permeable), 
(2) the solvent in correct volumes on each side of the membrane, and 
(3) the solute in correct concentrations on each side of the membrane. 
(4) Write the descriptions

►An excellent animation.  It starts out showing diffusion.  Then you add salt (a solute) and it changes to osmosis. 

►The figure on the right represents the end stage for Osmosis. →
--The dividing center line is solid ( ___ ), not dashed (- - -).  A solid line  indicates a semipermeable membrane.  (partly permeable)
--Only a solvent can pass thru a semipermeable membrane, so the solvent is attracted to the side of the membrane that has a higher concentration of a solute. 
--Like in your experiment 5.2, the water that is in vinegar was drawn to the thicker center of the raw egg.  The water could pass thru the semipermeable membrane of the egg.  Later, the water that was in the vinegar was drawn to the thick Karo syrup, so it seeped out of the egg into the syrup.  In the last step of my experiment when I put the egg in distilled water, the egg absorbed more water than it did vinegar in the first step.  So maybe water has smaller molecules?  Hmmmm.  I should email Apologia about that.  No, they said that vinegar is made up of LOTS of solute, and only a little water.  That is why not as much liquid went into the egg as when it was in distilled water. 
--In this figure, only the solvent can pass thru the semipermeable membrane, and in the end the concentration of solute is evened out in the solvent.
►In diffusion, both the solute that is in the high concentration area and the solvent can pass freely back and forth through the fully permeable membrane, so the water level would stay the same on both sides, but still the concentration of solute would get evened out in the solvent.    

(5) p. 139-140 Chemical Change
Learn how to balance equations with this video.
Then play the game linked below the video.

►Click to play Balancing Act! at Jefferson Lab.  
►Choose Beginner.

The molecules to the left of the arrow are called reactantsThey react to make a new product.
The molecules to the right of the arrow are called productsThey are produced as a result of the chemical reaction.

Chemical and Physical Change

►First, study the following.
Physical Change:
1) Atoms do not rearrange (switch partners).
2) Only physical properties change. Chemical properties do not change.
3) Physical changes are generally easy to reverse.
4) No energy is produced by the substance.
Example of all of the above: An ice cube (H2O) melts in the sun and turns into water (H2O).

Chemical Change:
1) Atoms are rearranged into different molecules. There will be a new chemical formula.
2) Both physical and chemical properties are changed.
3) Changes are not reversible without another reaction.
4) Energy is often produced (fire or heat, for example, or energy for humans or plants).

► Next, go to this worksheet on Physical and Chemical changes.  See if you know if the changes are physical or chemical.
Click on "Go to the worksheet answers" to see how you did.  If you got some wrong, try to figure out why.

More posted in Module 5, Part B


  1. I am a 9th grade student taking this college class myself and your website REALLY helps me so thank you very much!!!


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