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Apologia Biology, Module 4, Kingdom Fungi, Part C

Module 4, Part A
Module 4, Part B.
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M4 
M4 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am
Mold! (blog post at SAI cont.) 
• Great drawings and explanation of the Life Cycle of a Mushroom

(1) p. 115
Phylum Chytridiomycota (kye trid' ee oh my koh' tuh)
Remember this silly phrase, Kye tridd-y o(n) my coat.     

Ewwwww!!! This next phylum looks gross.  Just look at these potatoes!  (scroll down)
This fungi is definitely a parasite, and apparently can exist in the soil for quite some time.   But according to Apologia Biology, "However, most commercial potatoes grown today are resistant to this fungus."
Thank goodness.
This is commonly known as potato wart, caused by a parasitic chytrid called Synchytrium endobioticum
Phylum Chytridiomycota contains the single-celled fungi called chytrids (kye' trids).
Chytrids live in areas that are muddy or watery.  Some species are parasitic like the one above, but most are saprophytic, and feed on decaying water plants.
These are different than other fungi in that they don't have spores to be carried by the wind or other means.
Instead they have flagella, and can move on their own.

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(2) p. 115-116
Phylum Deuteromycota (doo' ter oh my koh' tuh) - The Imperfect Fungi
Dude, yer o(n) my coat!  (my favorite one) 

Since most scientists assume that every fungus has some phase of sexual reproduction, if a fungus cannot actually be determined to have sexual reproduction, it is placed in this "phylum" until it can be better classified.  It is "on hold" I guess.  =)  That is why they are often called the imperfect fungi.
This may be faulty reasoning, since there may be some who only reproduce asexually.  These will forever be "on hold" while they go on and do exactly as God designed them to anyway!  =)
One such very useful "imperfect" fungi actually is quite perfect for what God designed it to do.  This fungi comes from a blue mold from the genus Penicillium.
In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic.

Other members of the genus Penicillium are useful because they flavor certain kinds of cheese.  These are not the same species as the one that produces penicillin; they are just in the same genus.

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p. 117-119
Phylum Myxomycota (myk' so my koh' tuh)  Mike, sew my coat.  
This is another controversial phylum.  Most modern textbooks place phylum Myxomycota in kingdom Protista.  Apologia chose to leave it in its traditional place, kingdom Fungi.  Rather than categorize it in kingdom Protista because of the way it feeds, they consider reproduction a better reason to categorize it in kingdom Fungi.
This fungi is saprophytic and is harmless, but it looks gross!  They are typically called slime molds
This first video has no gross pictures, so relax and watch.  =)

This second video may appear gross, but actually, it looks a little like gel.  Like that homemade slime that kids like to play with.  I made some blue slime once for my nieces and nephews.
They played with it at my house and did not take it home.
The mothers were happy.  =)
Around 20 seconds or so, this slime mold starts to look like little fingers branching out.

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p. 119-120 Symbiosis in Kingdom Fungi
There are two different forms of symbiosis in kingdom Fungi.
Both of these forms of symbiosis are mutualistic. (Both members of the symbiotic relationship benefit from their relationship.)

(A) Lichens (lie'-kuns, not lich-ens) are produced by a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae.  (See images of lichens)
The fungus is usually of phylum Ascomycota (p. 109), and the algae is usually of phylum Chlorophyta. (p. 86).
Lichens are produced when the algae, by means of photosynthesis, produces food for itself and the fungus.  The fungus supports and protects the algae.

(B) The second form of mutualisitic symbiosis in kingdom fungi is called a mycorrhiza (my' kuh rye' zuh) or a "fungus root."
In a mycorrhiza or "fungus root" relationship, the fungus absorbs nutrients from the roots, and in return, the fungus gives the plant needed minerals.


  1. I'm Joshua.
    You could put 'Mike Sew My Coat U(p).

    1. Thanks, Joshua! Yes, that would work! =)


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