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Apologia Biology, Module 3, Kingdom Protista, Part A

Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M3 
M3 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am
Module 3, Part B

►Kingdom Monera is bacteria.  That's easy to understand.
►Best I can figure, kingdom Protista consists of organisms that are mostly found in water or some kind of moisture.  Some live in insects, humans, or animals.
Both of these kingdoms are microorganisms (seen with a microscope).
►Kingdom Monera (bacteria) are single-celled and are prokaryotic.
►Kingdom Protista is mostly single-celled, but single-celled or multicellular, their cells are eukaryotic (have distinct, membrane-bounded organelles).  Each organelle in the cell has a different job.  This adds more complexity to the organisms of kingdom Protista.

As a reminder, here are the differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells:

As you can see, in addition to kingdom Protista, all the other kingdoms we will study later - Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia - also have eukaryotic cells.

►►Bacteria cells, Plant cells, and Animal cells.
Which kind are Protists?  Kingdom Protista has two divisions.
Subdivision Protozoa has cells that are animal-like.  Not animal cells, but animal-like cells.
Subdivision Algae consists of plant-like cells.

Look at the different parts (called organelles) of a Eukaryotic Cell.  Click on animal or plant cell.  
Different organelles have their own jobs to perform to maintain the life of the cell.  Hover over the organelles of the cell to learn their names.  Below the cell, hover over the names to see any organelles you may have missed.
Notice which organelles the animal cell does not have that the plant cell has, and vice versa.
The organelles that are in both cells, are they each the same shape?
You do not need to know all this now - that will come in a later module.  It is good to be familiar with this information.

(1) p. 67-70, Classification in Kingdom Protista
Kingdom Protista is divided into two subkingdoms:  subkingdom Protozoa, and subkingdom Algae.

Subkingdom Protozoa is divided into four phyla.  The division is based on locomotion - how they move.  To me, these are more interesting than the organisms in subkingdom Algae. 

Subkingdom Algae is divided into five phyla.  The division for Algae is based on three things: habitat, organization (single or multiple cells; one phylum has some colonies), and by type of cell wall.

Each of the nine phyla for subkingdoms Protozoa and Algae has one or more examples in the genus category given in the text.
There are many genera (pl. for genus) and in each genus category, there are many species.  Some examples are listed only by genus and are Capitalized and italicized, and some are specific and give both genus and species.  The species is only italicized, not capitalized.
(Think "general" and "specific", although 'genus' is not very general when you think about the fact that it is the 6th category in the Biological Classification system!)
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species

Kingdom Protista:  Subkingdom Protozoa

(2) p. 71-73, Phylum Sarcodina
Phylum: Sarcodina
Locomotion: Pseudopods (false feet)
example: genus Amoeba (uh mee' buh)

►See images of amoebas!
Amoeba Dinner!
Watch this amoeba eat.  It uses its pseudopod locomotion to move and to engulf its prey.  To begin with, everything moves slowly until the prey realizes it is caught!

More amoebas.

Other Sarcodines - members of the Sarcodina phylum:
Entamoeba gingivalis
Entamoeba coli, or E. coli,(but not Escherichia coli)
Entamoeba histolytica
The genus Entamoeba contains many organisms that live inside humans.
Which of these three ↑ are harmless, and which are harmful (and therefore a parasite)?
And what disease(s) do they cause?

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(3) p. 74-78a, Phylum Mastigophora
Phylum: Mastigophora
Locomotion: Flagellum
example: genus Euglena (yoo glee' nuh)

Euglena, from a pond

Euglena's movement by whirling its flagella, and by drawing its cytoplasm into the central region of the cell, then re-extending itself forward.

Euglena are both heterotrophs and autotrophs (p. 74)
(Although some biologist say to be an autotroph, it has to only make its own food, and not acquire it elsewhere.)
But if a Euglena is deprived of light too long, it will no longer be able to make its own food, even if it has plenty of light later.
Euglena are saprophytic heterotrophs since they only feed on dead things, and therefore they are also decomposers.

To Clarify:
Heterotrophic bacteria can be saprophytes, and therefore also a decomposer.
Heterotrophic bacteria can be parasites, and are not decomposers.
Autotrophic bacteria manufacture their own food by chemosynthesis or photosynthesis.

In the following video, the boys says the Euglena "can be a plant or an animal, depending..."
Per my email to Apologia, "it it neither a plant nor an animal; it is considered a protist."
Also, Euglenas do not use their "eye" to see.  It is there to sense light and the Euglena is drawn toward the light, but it cannot see the light.

See different types of protists with flagella.  Since these organisms that are from the kingdom Protista, subkingdom Protozoa, and all have flagella, they are in the phylum Mastigophora.  
Not all the genera (pl. for genus) in the phylum Mastigophora are euglena.  Euglena is perhaps the most common.

Volvox Reproduction

►See a closeup of a volvox colony.  You can even see the flagella and eyespots!  Also see the thin strands of cytoplasm holding it together.  It is awesome how they organize themselves like little planets with North and South poles.  Scroll down.
So beautiful!  And our Creator made this!  =D  This is a terrific page!

Other Mastigophorites - members of the phylum Mastigophora: 
Which of these three ↑ live in colonies?  How do they move?
Which one is beneficial to a termite?  Why?
Which one is carried by the tsetse fly and causes disease? (this would make it a parasite)  What disease?

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(5) p. 78-79, Phylum Ciliophora
Phylum: Ciliophora
Locomotion: Cilia (sil' ee uh)
example: genus Paramecium (pair uh mee' see um)

A paramecium moves by beating the tiny "hairs" on its edge.  These are called cilia.
Paramecia have an oral groove where they take in food.  You can see the oral groove around 40 seconds when it starts turning over several times.
The little "blobs" throughout are food vacuoles.  After a paramecium takes in food through the oral groove, it pinches off a little section with the food inside it.  This is now a food vacuole, and it will move to other parts of the paramecium, taking food to its whole body.

Other Ciliates - members of the phylum Ciliophora:
Balantidium coli
Which of these is shaped like a trumpet?  What does it eat?  How does it get its food?
Which of these is a parasite found in fecal matter of many species?

Flagella and Cilia
Here is a video that shows some protists from different phyla. You should recognize most of these names.
Look at p. 62 in your textbook.  These are some organisms found in pond water, and now you will be able to recognize many of them.
Chlamydomonas are green algae, which we will be studying in the second half of the module.
Phacus, a Euglenoid, then "relatives of Phacus".  They are species of the genus Euglena.
Paramecia, mentioned above.
Stentor, mentioned above.

Watch the food move down thru the stentor.

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(6) p. 80-83, Phylum Sporozoa
Phylum: Sporozoa
Locomotion: None
example: genus Plasmodium (plaz' moh dee um)

The genus Plasmodium is home to a very deadly sporozoan.  They are parasites.  They form spores while in the mosquito, but while in a human they multiply in a different way, and can multiply very rapidly.
Study the spore formation stages on p. 80.


Study the Life Cycle of Plasmodium on p. 81
How a Mosquito spreads Malaria

Sadly, this is true.

Another typical sporozoan - member of the phylum Sporozoa
Toxoplasma gondii
This sporozoan parasite can live in mammals, particularly what animal?
Pregnant women are told to not clean up after these particular animals because it may cause what?
The spores can be spread further by houseflies, cockroaches, insects.
►Once infected with a Toxoplasmic parasite, a person will have it the rest of their life.  See a video about the Toxoplasma parasite.


  1. You've got some great youtube videos here! These match nicely with our study of A World in a Drop of Water.

  2. I'm glad you can use the videos!
    Is that a curriculum? I haven't heard of it.

  3. Are you the "jimmie" that posted about notebooking today at Homeschool Reviews?

    I'm martysahm! =)


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