►This site was originally created for my kids and their cousins, because we did science together. We eventually added more friends and I ended up having science classes for five years. I am no longer adding to the site (since 2014), but will leave it up for others' use. I do post to facebook occasionally if I come across something to share. =)

►Please accept my apology for any broken links or videos that do not work. I am always disappointed when people take down their videos from YouTube. It makes it hard to find just the right replacement. And because the videos were posted years ago, I usually have no recollection of what the video was about.
I kept thinking I would have time after my kids graduated, but life has filled up my free time with new responsibilities. =)

►Please do not email, asking me to post your website link, or to review something to put on my site. Any resources posted on this site are things I had found on my own during my regular searching for material I needed at the time, and liked it well enough to post here. There have never been any affiliates on my site, and as it is no longer active, would not be worthwhile at this point. ;)
Thank you!

Apologia Physical Science, Module 15, Light

Interactive Study Links
Electromagnetic Spectrum Activity - 2 quizzes at the end!
Physics Classroom: Light; Debbie also made a printable worksheet with images from here.
• Create an account and make your own flashcards at Quizlet.com!

Other Study Links
• Sites for testing Color Blindness
"If I Were an Archer Fish" -- about refraction
• Find these and more at Debbie's Educator's Resources.  (Thanks, Debbie!)

This site has several printable experiments.  Great hands-on activities about light.


1) p. 373, Physical Science 7.3b - Light Waves, Part 1



Physical Science 7.3c - Light Waves, Part 2


7.3d - two theries:  The Particle Theory of Light; The Wave Theory of Light





2) p. 380, The Electromagnetic Spectrum
He mentions nanometers.  Figure 15.2, The Visible Spectrum of Light, shows for each color, their wavelengths in nanometers.



 Electromagnetic Spectrum Activity - do the 2 quizzes at the end!






3) p. 382, Physics 11.1.1b - The Law of Reflection


4) p. 382, Reflection of Light in a Plane Mirror
"The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection."


5) p. 383, Physics 11.1.2a - Image Formation


6) p. 385, Physics 11.2.1a - Refraction
WHY light bends - awesome diagram and explanation.


7) p. 387, Light, Reflection, and Refraction
Start watching at 0:44 seconds.




►See this image of how light behaves when entering a glass.
►Also see these real pictures of ways to bend light.  Awesome!  And I'd love to visit the Beam Me Up, Scottie! event and try to get the laser beam through the maze. (see last pic)


8) p. 389, Light Refraction


9) p. 390, How a Rainbow Works
In order to see a rainbow:
a. there must be water droplets in the air
b. the sun must be shining on them from behind you
c. the sun needs to be at a certain angle (how high it is and where that position is relative to your position)



The red light hits your eye higher than the violet light, so you see them in that order.
►See these images of how light bends when it hits water, so that you always see the colors of the rainboin the same order.



10) p. 390, Full Circle Rainbow


11) p. 392, Physics 11.3.1a - Lenses, Part 1


12) p. 392, Physics 11.3.1b - Lenses, Part 2


►See Converging and Diverging lenses (scroll to bottom)
Love the soldiers in mud analogy.  =)





14) p. 394, How Light Enters the Eye


Images are supposed to focus on the retina.
Sometimes a person's eye may be a different shape, or the cornea may not be curved correctly, or the lens not positioned correctly.
These things prevent the image from landing directly on the retina.




Remember how light bends? When light enters the eye, it bends!








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