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Thursday, August 26, 2010

Apologia Biology, Module 1, The Study of Life

Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M1 
M1 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am 
Worksheet for Exp. 1.1 Biological Classification

Note:  There is quite a bit of vocabulary in this module (chapter), so please memorize all new terminology.  It is necessary to know these to be able to better understand future modules.
This is good practice throughout the book, as each module will build on previous ones.

(1) p. 1-6, What is Life?... DNA and Life... Energy Conservation and Life

DNA stands for "deoxyribonucleic acid." Hear pronunciation. Click on the little speaker.
Click to see animated images of DNA structures.  This is just to familiarize yourself with what DNA strands can look like as they are rotated.
More images of DNA

Metabolism - the sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism’s life functions.
►Metabolism involves two main steps, so the "sum total" consists of these two steps:
  • catabolism (n.) - the breaking down of chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks, like when your body digests food.
  • anabolism (n.) - the use of this energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
(In the video, -ic is added to the words, using them as adjectives.)
A silly video to help you remember the difference between catabolism and anabolism:


Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers
Producers (plants and algae) make their own food.
Consumers (humans and animals) get their food from another source.
Decomposers break down the remains of other dead organisms.
These are fungi (mushrooms, yeast, mold, etc).  Although they are consumers (since they do not make their own food), they are classified separately as Decomposers because they play a distinct role in Creation by "recycling" dead organisms.

Omnivores  =)
Of the three classifications of organisms above,
Consumers are further classified by what they eat.
   • Herbivores are consumers that eat only producers (plants and/or algae).
   • Carnivores are consumers that eat only other consumers.
They are meat-eaters only, like lions or tigers, (but not bears), oh my!  
   • Omnivores are consumers that eat both producers and consumers.
Bears eat fish as well as berries; so do I!  =)

Click to learn about autotrophs, heterotrophs, and photosynthesis.  Read the entire page.
Don't miss clicking on the green word parts of photo + synthesis.
Learn how plants produce oxygen.


(2) p. 6b-9, Sensing and Responding to Change... All Life Forms Reproduce... Life's Secret Ingredient

I could find no videos for these sections.


(3) p. 9-1, The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method
In the video below, the guy is right.  Many things cannot be proven like evolution, the big bang, but that also includes Creation.  In order to be proven, something must be able to be repeated and observed.  
Therefore as Christians led by the Holy Spirit, we can believe by faith the Biblical account of the origin of the universe.  =)


The Scientific Method at Biology4Kids
►Learn to be independent of fill-in lab forms.  Have a guide on another sheet of paper, kind of like what is shown at this website (be sure it covers what your teacher is asking of you), and eventually you will memorize what things to include, and in what order.


(4) p. 12-16, Limitations of the Scientific Method... Spontaneous Generation

Spontaneous Generation



(5) p. 16-18aBiological Classification 

 King Philip and the Biological Classification System.

During the video, he gives the genus and species for a mountain lion.  On the screen it says, "Felis Concolor."  The spelling and name are correct, but it should be written as Felis concolor with only the first word capitalized and both words italicized.
The genus and species are the only two categories in the Biological Classification system whose proper names will be italicized.
The proper name of a species is always written in lowercase.

Order of the Biological Classification system:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species

The words themselves, "kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species" are not capitalized in sentences unless they precede the proper name.  Such as Kingdom Animalia, or Phylum Chordata.
The proper name of a species is never capitalized.
See the last two on p. 17 for the Bald Eagle.

Use this mnemonic to help you remember the order:  King Phillip Cried Out, "For Goodness Sake!"
Write your own mnemonic.  =)


(6) p. 18-20, Characteristics Used to Separate Organisms into Kingdoms

All living cells are divided into two types:
  -prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

►All plant and animal cells are eukaryotic.  Plants and animals have many, many cells.  They are "multi-cellular."
Only bacteria are prokaryotic.  Each bacterium is made of one cell.  They are "single-celled" or "single-cellular."
(There are other single-celled organisms beside bacteria, but they have eukaryotic cells.)

Prokaryotic cells do not have organelles (little organs) like a eukaryotic cell does.
►See this image that compares the two kinds of cells.
--In the cytoplasm (jelly-like center, sometimes called cytosol) of a prokaryotic cell, there are ribosomes and DNA.
--In the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, there are many organelles, each with their own job.

►Prokaryotic DNA is arranged in a winding, circular shape, connecting end-to-end.  There is only one replication origin (original DNA strand) when replication (copying of DNA) starts.  The DNA is not enclosed in a nucleus, but is visible throughout the cell.
►By contrast, eukaryotic DNA is linear (in a line); it does not connect end to end to form a circle. The DNA in a eukaryotic cell is enclosed in a nucleus -- it is "membrane-bound."  Other organelles are enclosed in membranes also, much like tiny water balloons of all shapes.
In Eukaryotic cells, there are as many as 1000 replication origins in the nucleus when replication starts.

Despite these differences, however, the underlying process of replication (copying DNA) is the same for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA.

Biological Classification, the Five Kingdoms
  1. Monera - one prokaryotic cell (has no nucleus) or simple association (blue-green algae, bacteria, etc.)
  2. Protista -  one eukaryotic cell or simple association (amoebae, paramecium, algae, etc.)
  3. Fungi - mostly decomposers, eukaryotic; mostly multi-cellular (mushrooms, bread mold, etc.), a few single-celled fungi (such as yeast).
  4. Plantae - mostly autotrophs (make their own food), multi-celled, eukaryotic cells.  Some exceptions - some parasitic organisms are Plantae, but not autotrophs.
  5. Animalia - multi-celled, eukaryotic cells, heterotrophs, but not decomposers like Fungi


(7) p. 20-21, The Definition of Species


(8) p. 21-26, Biological Keys


(9) p. 27, Naming Organisms Based on Classification Binomial Nomenclature


(10) p. 27b-30, Alternate Forms of Taxonomy


(11) p. 30-32, The Microscope  If you missed class, study the picture of a microscope in your textbook and note the labeled parts. Read the entire experiment.   Then go to the Virtual Microscope.  Click on The virtual scope.   ►If this is your first time at this site, take the tour, selecting any slide other than the cheek smear The steps will be on the top right. The next step will be highlighted with a red border. Anytime you missed an instruction, click the back arrow ◄ at the bottom of the list of steps. After switching views so that you're looking through the microscope, on the left you can click open the checklist. Experiment 1.2, Introduction to the Microscope.  After the tour, select the cheek cell slide to do Experiment 1.2.   Remember to turn the light ON before switching views. The directions in your book say to draw what you see at each magnification.   Start with 4x magnification.  Make sure you have your checklist complete on the website before drawing, and before moving to the next magnification.    Label page as a cheek cell, and label each magnification. These are stained blue so you'll be able to see them easier.  (Remember, the power of the ocular (eyepiece) is usually 10x, so if you are using the 4x objective, it is 4x10=40x larger than an actual cheek cell)
►Click for images of cheek cells.


  1. You already have a great start on your Biology section! 8)

  2. I just wanted to say thanks! You have great resources and we have truly enjoyed using your resources along with our Biology. Thanks!

  3. You're welcome, Jenielle!
    I am really enjoying Biology. =)
    I realize our schedule this year is a little behind most people, so I had hoped it would still be able to help someone.
    You are so very welcome.
    Marty =)

  4. I just found your blog through homeschool freebie of the day. My daughter will be doing Apologia Biology this year, & we are excited to check some of your posts!
    Thank you, Christy

  5. A bit late I am, but you're welcome, Christy! =)

  6. Hi Marty!

    Not sure if you remember me, but I thanked you for the Experiment 1.1 worksheet the other day.

    Well, *today* we followed your Quizlet link to review vocabulary, and my two high schoolers actually had FUN doing it. I was dreading all of the vocab for this year, but now I think it won't be so bad after all. The videos are so great, too! Thank you so much for all of the work you've put into this. I sort of feel like I'm cheating a little when I come over here, but why reinvent the wheel, right?

    My kids appreciate you just as much as I do now that I've told them we'll try Module 2 without them having to make their own flashcards. (They had to do it all last year for Physical Science, and it was their least favorite part of studying.) They just need to go on Quizlet at least three times during the module to practice their vocabulary. YAY!

    I'm in charge of our Biology Lab Co-op group, and I've already shared your treasure trove with them. And the next time I blog, I'm going to put a link to you in my post. I guess I'm a fan as well as a follower!

    Thanks again!

  7. Yes, I remember you. =)

    And thanks so much for the comment! I love to learn how others are able to use the videos, etc, I've gathered.
    And I know what you mean about flashcards. No one likes those! But the computer versions are much more fun.

    Thanks for being a follower/fan! Lol. =D

  8. I am so excited to teach this years Biology Co-Op Class! Thanks to your blog it should be so much fun and I just know the kids are going to enjoy it!

  9. This site is so wonderful! We are doing Apologia Biology this year and this is so helpful. I see you were doing this in 2010. Thank you for leaving it on your website. It is helpful in 2015 also. God bless and guide you. Bonita

    1. Thank you, Bonita! All my kids have graduated now! =\ But I have a grandbaby!! And there are some things my husband and I do for the ministry. So somehow my days keep filling up and I stay busy. =)

  10. This is just what my limited-space house needs for study guides! Thank you for keeping this site active over the years! :)

    1. You're welcome! Glad it's come in handy. =)

  11. Thank you for sharing this with other homeschoolers and keeping your site up for this purpose. Very helpful!!

  12. Wow!! You are amazing! Thank you so much for sharing your time with us. This is just fabulous!!

  13. Hello Marty, I was recommended your site as I will be using this text in the fall. I notice all of the TubeChop videos are not available - the box is dark grey and when I click play nothing happens. Is this something that can be fixed? Thanks for looking into it - let me know if it's working fine for you and therefore my problem :)

    1. Hi, I am sorry about that. Yes, I have recently realized the TubeChop videos are no longer working... In the past, I had chopped them for relevant content, to make it easier for students.
      Unfortunately, these were posted in 2010, so I have no idea what the videos included. I have not been posting here since 2014, when I last did science classes. I would love to fix all the posts with broken links, but really just don't have the time anymore.
      I will remove the videos from this post that are not working. Hopefully you and others will be able to find what you need for those sections. Thank you for letting me know. =)


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