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Thursday, August 26, 2010

Apologia Biology, Module 1, The Study of Life

Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M1 
M1 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am 
Worksheet for Exp. 1.1 Biological Classification

Note:  There is quite a bit of vocabulary in this module (chapter), so please memorize all new terminology.  It is necessary to know these to be able to better understand future modules.
This is good practice throughout the book, as each module will build on previous ones.

(1) p. 1-6, What is Life?... DNA and Life... Energy Conservation and Life

DNA stands for "deoxyribonucleic acid." Hear pronunciation. Click on the little speaker.
Click to see animated images of DNA structures.  This is just to familiarize yourself with what DNA strands can look like as they are rotated.
More images of DNA

Metabolism - the sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism’s life functions.
►Metabolism involves two main steps, so the "sum total" consists of these two steps:
  • catabolism (n.) - the breaking down of chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks, like when your body digests food.
  • anabolism (n.) - the use of this energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
(In the video, -ic is added to the words, using them as adjectives.)
A silly video to help you remember the difference between catabolism and anabolism:


Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers
Producers (plants and algae) make their own food.
Consumers (humans and animals) get their food from another source.
Decomposers break down the remains of other dead organisms.
These are fungi (mushrooms, yeast, mold, etc).  Although they are consumers (since they do not make their own food), they are classified separately as Decomposers because they play a distinct role in Creation by "recycling" dead organisms.

Omnivores  =)
Of the three classifications of organisms above,
Consumers are further classified by what they eat.
   • Herbivores are consumers that eat only producers (plants and/or algae).
   • Carnivores are consumers that eat only other consumers.
They are meat-eaters only, like lions or tigers, (but not bears), oh my!  
   • Omnivores are consumers that eat both producers and consumers.
Bears eat fish as well as berries; so do I!  =)

Click to learn about autotrophs, heterotrophs, and photosynthesis.  Read the entire page.
Don't miss clicking on the green word parts of photo + synthesis.
Learn how plants produce oxygen.


(2) p. 6b-9, Sensing and Responding to Change... All Life Forms Reproduce... Life's Secret Ingredient

I could find no videos for these sections.


(3) p. 9-1, The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method
In the video below, the guy is right.  Many things cannot be proven like evolution, the big bang, but that also includes Creation.  In order to be proven, something must be able to be repeated and observed.  
Therefore as Christians led by the Holy Spirit, we can believe by faith the Biblical account of the origin of the universe.  =)


The Scientific Method at Biology4Kids
►Learn to be independent of fill-in lab forms.  Have a guide on another sheet of paper, kind of like what is shown at this website (be sure it covers what your teacher is asking of you), and eventually you will memorize what things to include, and in what order.


(4) p. 12-16, Limitations of the Scientific Method... Spontaneous Generation

Spontaneous Generation



(5) p. 16-18aBiological Classification 

 King Philip and the Biological Classification System.

During the video, he gives the genus and species for a mountain lion.  On the screen it says, "Felis Concolor."  The spelling and name are correct, but it should be written as Felis concolor with only the first word capitalized and both words italicized.
The genus and species are the only two categories in the Biological Classification system whose proper names will be italicized.
The proper name of a species is always written in lowercase.

Order of the Biological Classification system:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species

The words themselves, "kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species" are not capitalized in sentences unless they precede the proper name.  Such as Kingdom Animalia, or Phylum Chordata.
The proper name of a species is never capitalized.
See the last two on p. 17 for the Bald Eagle.

Use this mnemonic to help you remember the order:  King Phillip Cried Out, "For Goodness Sake!"
Write your own mnemonic.  =)


(6) p. 18-20, Characteristics Used to Separate Organisms into Kingdoms

All living cells are divided into two types:
  -prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

►All plant and animal cells are eukaryotic.  Plants and animals have many, many cells.  They are "multi-cellular."
Only bacteria are prokaryotic.  Each bacterium is made of one cell.  They are "single-celled" or "single-cellular."
(There are other single-celled organisms beside bacteria, but they have eukaryotic cells.)

Prokaryotic cells do not have organelles (little organs) like a eukaryotic cell does.
►See this image that compares the two kinds of cells.
--In the cytoplasm (jelly-like center, sometimes called cytosol) of a prokaryotic cell, there are ribosomes and DNA.
--In the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, there are many organelles, each with their own job.

►Prokaryotic DNA is arranged in a winding, circular shape, connecting end-to-end.  There is only one replication origin (original DNA strand) when replication (copying of DNA) starts.  The DNA is not enclosed in a nucleus, but is visible throughout the cell.
►By contrast, eukaryotic DNA is linear (in a line); it does not connect end to end to form a circle. The DNA in a eukaryotic cell is enclosed in a nucleus -- it is "membrane-bound."  Other organelles are enclosed in membranes also, much like tiny water balloons of all shapes.
In Eukaryotic cells, there are as many as 1000 replication origins in the nucleus when replication starts.

Despite these differences, however, the underlying process of replication (copying DNA) is the same for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA.

Biological Classification, the Five Kingdoms
  1. Monera - one prokaryotic cell (has no nucleus) or simple association (blue-green algae, bacteria, etc.)
  2. Protista -  one eukaryotic cell or simple association (amoebae, paramecium, algae, etc.)
  3. Fungi - mostly decomposers, eukaryotic; mostly multi-cellular (mushrooms, bread mold, etc.), a few single-celled fungi (such as yeast).
  4. Plantae - mostly autotrophs (make their own food), multi-celled, eukaryotic cells.  Some exceptions - some parasitic organisms are Plantae, but not autotrophs.
  5. Animalia - multi-celled, eukaryotic cells, heterotrophs, but not decomposers like Fungi


(7) p. 20-21, The Definition of Species


(8) p. 21-26, Biological Keys


(9) p. 27, Naming Organisms Based on Classification Binomial Nomenclature


(10) p. 27b-30, Alternate Forms of Taxonomy


(11) p. 30-32, The Microscope  If you missed class, study the picture of a microscope in your textbook and note the labeled parts. Read the entire experiment.   Then go to the Virtual Microscope.  Click on The virtual scope.   ►If this is your first time at this site, take the tour, selecting any slide other than the cheek smear The steps will be on the top right. The next step will be highlighted with a red border. Anytime you missed an instruction, click the back arrow ◄ at the bottom of the list of steps. After switching views so that you're looking through the microscope, on the left you can click open the checklist. Experiment 1.2, Introduction to the Microscope.  After the tour, select the cheek cell slide to do Experiment 1.2.   Remember to turn the light ON before switching views. The directions in your book say to draw what you see at each magnification.   Start with 4x magnification.  Make sure you have your checklist complete on the website before drawing, and before moving to the next magnification.    Label page as a cheek cell, and label each magnification. These are stained blue so you'll be able to see them easier.  (Remember, the power of the ocular (eyepiece) is usually 10x, so if you are using the 4x objective, it is 4x10=40x larger than an actual cheek cell)
►Click for images of cheek cells.

Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Apologia Physical Science, Module 16, An Introduction to Astrophysics

Interactive Study Links
• Create an account and make your own flashcards at!

Other Study Links
• Several links to various worksheets at Debbie's Educator's Resources.  (Thanks, Debbie!)

(1) p. 405, Exploring the Sun
Two more layers are named than what we learned, so don't let that throw ya!  =)

The sizes of stars

(2) p. 407, Nuclear Fusion Animation

(3) p. 407, Nuclear Fusion

(4) p. 409, Nuclear Fission
Part 1

Part 2

(5) p. 411, April, 1986, Chernobyl (Chir-NO-ble)

(6) p. 415, The Hetrzsprung-Russel Diagram

(7) p. 419, Cepheid Variables

(8) p. 420, Measuring Distance by Triangulation and Parallex

(9) p. 421, How Far is a Light Year?

(10) p. 424, What is a Redshift?
He says the universe is expanding. Dr. Wile says it could be or could not be.

Thursday, August 19, 2010

Apologia Physical Science, Module 15, Light

Interactive Study Links
Electromagnetic Spectrum Activity - 2 quizzes at the end!
Physics Classroom: Light; Debbie also made a printable worksheet with images from here.
• Create an account and make your own flashcards at!

Other Study Links
• Sites for testing Color Blindness
"If I Were an Archer Fish" -- about refraction
• Find these and more at Debbie's Educator's Resources.  (Thanks, Debbie!)

This site has several printable experiments.  Great hands-on activities about light.

1) p. 373, Physical Science 7.3b - Light Waves, Part 1

Physical Science 7.3c - Light Waves, Part 2

7.3d - two theries:  The Particle Theory of Light; The Wave Theory of Light

2) p. 380, The Electromagnetic Spectrum
He mentions nanometers.  Figure 15.2, The Visible Spectrum of Light, shows for each color, their wavelengths in nanometers.

 Electromagnetic Spectrum Activity - do the 2 quizzes at the end!

3) p. 382, Physics 11.1.1b - The Law of Reflection

4) p. 382, Reflection of Light in a Plane Mirror
"The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection."

5) p. 383, Physics 11.1.2a - Image Formation

6) p. 385, Physics 11.2.1a - Refraction
WHY light bends - awesome diagram and explanation.

7) p. 387, Light, Reflection, and Refraction
Start watching at 0:44 seconds.

►See this image of how light behaves when entering a glass.
►Also see these real pictures of ways to bend light.  Awesome!  And I'd love to visit the Beam Me Up, Scottie! event and try to get the laser beam through the maze. (see last pic)

8) p. 389, Light Refraction

9) p. 390, How a Rainbow Works
In order to see a rainbow:
a. there must be water droplets in the air
b. the sun must be shining on them from behind you
c. the sun needs to be at a certain angle (how high it is and where that position is relative to your position)

The red light hits your eye higher than the violet light, so you see them in that order.
►See these images of how light bends when it hits water, so that you always see the colors of the rainboin the same order.

10) p. 390, Full Circle Rainbow

11) p. 392, Physics 11.3.1a - Lenses, Part 1

12) p. 392, Physics 11.3.1b - Lenses, Part 2

►See Converging and Diverging lenses (scroll to bottom)
Love the soldiers in mud analogy.  =)

14) p. 394, How Light Enters the Eye

Images are supposed to focus on the retina.
Sometimes a person's eye may be a different shape, or the cornea may not be curved correctly, or the lens not positioned correctly.
These things prevent the image from landing directly on the retina.

Remember how light bends? When light enters the eye, it bends!

Tuesday, August 10, 2010

Apologia Physical Science, Module 14, Waves and Sound

Play  Quizlet.  Just scroll down and find the Module you want.

1) p. 345-348 - Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

2) p. 345-348, Longitudinal Wave

3) p. 353, Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion

extra if you want to know:
From Celsius to Fahrenheit
The way I learned it in school, with the fraction 5/9
Try both ways.  They work!  =)

4) p. 353-355, Weather & Meteorology: How Can I Tell How Far Away a Lightning Strike Hit? 

5) p. 355-357, Close to Mach 1

6) p. 355-357, Sonic Boom

7) p. 361-362, Picture of Supersonic Shock Wave

8) p. 363-365, How the Ear Works

9) p. 366-368, Ultrasonic wave with obstruction
(Here are more if you are interested)

Friday, August 6, 2010

Adding negative and positive numbers

(1) What is an integer?

(2) Adding Integers

(3) Adding Integers with a number line

(4) Adding Integers, animated number line

(5) Adding Integers - use the sign of the larger absolute number; adding 3 numbers.

(6) Adding Integers (with dogs & cats)

(7) Adding and Subtracting negative and positive integers - Rules
When he says bigger number, he means the bigger absolute number.

Subtracting positive and negative numbers

These videos show how to subtract a negative number, but they don't explain why.
When my kids learned about negative and positive numbers, I told them, "If you owed your sister $7.00, then you have negative $7.00."  (This is after they understand what "having" negative $7.00 means.)
"Then suppose your sister takes away 3 of the 7 you owe?  How much do you now owe her?"
Now you only owe her $4.00.
So (-7)-(-3)=-4
That is the same as saying (-7)+(+3)=-4
The videos teach to change both signs, but do not explain why you can change the subtraction sign and the negative sign that comes immediately after it.

Next, I tell them even if a problem is 5-9= the 5 is positive, and the 9 is negative.  When they were just learning this, I told them to circle each number with the sign directly in front of it.  Then they could easily see the 5 was positive and that the negative sign went with the 9.

Another thing I'd like to point out, is that in text books, the negative sign is usually written up higher than the regular addition and subtractions symbols, and is sometimes not in parentheses.  But when being written, it is good to place parentheses around numbers and their negative signs to keep them separated from the regular addition and subtraction symbols.

(1) Subtracting integers, animated number line
"The difference of -4 and -7 is 3."  This makes so much sense!  
If it is -7º where you live, and it is -4º where I live, the difference is 3º.
And if it is 4º where you live, and it is -2º where I live, the difference is 6º.
So 4 - (-2) is the same as 4 + (+2) and it equals 6.

(2) Subtracting Integers,
Remember, when subtracting, you are finding the difference between two numbers.

(3) Subtracting integers, subtracting 3 numbers
Anytime you change a subtraction sign to an addition sign, you must change the sign of the number immediately after it.

(4) Subtracting Integers, with dogs and cats