►This site was originally created for my kids and their cousins, because we did science together. We eventually added more friends and I ended up having science classes for five years. I am no longer adding to the site (since 2014), but will leave it up for others' use. I do post to facebook occasionally if I come across something to share. =)

►Please accept my apology for any broken links or videos that do not work. I am always disappointed when people take down their videos from YouTube. It makes it hard to find just the right replacement. And because the videos were posted years ago, I usually have no recollection of what the video was about.
I kept thinking I would have time after my kids graduated, but life has filled up my free time with new responsibilities. =)

►Please do not email, asking me to post your website link, or to review something to put on my site. Any resources posted on this site are things I had found on my own during my regular searching for material I needed at the time, and liked it well enough to post here. There have never been any affiliates on my site, and as it is no longer active, would not be worthwhile at this point. ;)
Thank you!

Apologia Physical Science, Module 13, The Forces in Creation - Part 3

• See this awesome chart of the Periodic Table of the Elements with pictures.
• Play  Quizlet.  Just scroll down and find the Module you want.
• Learn about the Elements with interactive games at Jefferson Labs! Learn the elements, calculate the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons, and more!
►My Students: Play the Element Math Game and any others you wish.
(Choose your level and # of questions.) 

1) p. 317-319, Physical Science 6.1a - The Structure of an Atom. I think at 4:00 minutes, he may have meant that "electrons would be like little pieces of dust flying around."

2) p. 317-319, Physical Science 7.1a - The Elements

3) p. 317-319, Physical Science 7.1b - Naming the Elements. 
Just before the video stops, pause it and copy these elements and their symbols into your notebook.

4) p. 320-323, Physical Science 7.2a - Isotopes

5) p. 320-323, Protons, Neutrons, Electrons, and Isotopes

6) p. 320-323, Physical Science 7.2c - Isotopes of Carbon

7) p. 328-330a, Physical Science 7.4c - The Atomic Nucleus  (does not mention the exchanging of pions, the force that holds the protons together, but does explain how a neutron might be able to "spit out" an electron, turning that neutron into a proton - this is in the "Radioactivity" section in your book.)

8) p. 330-332, Physical Science 7.4a - Radiation

9) p. 330-332, Physical Science 7.4d - A typical radioactive decay.  A neutron needs protons to remain stable. The protons need neutrons in order to be able to stick together. (exchanging pions)

10) p. 330-332, Physical Science 7.4e - A typical radioactive decay.  When a neutron shoots out an electron (if produced from beta decay, the electron is called a beta particle, but it is still an electron), the neutron becomes a proton to keep the number of electrons and protons balanced.  This is an example of beta decay. 
The radioactive isotope does this to remain stable. 
Alpha decay is when the radioactive isotope emits an alpha particle - a small nucleus that contains 2 protons and 2 neutrons.  This is actually the nucleus of a helium atom!  In this video, Derek Owens calls this transmutation.

11) p. 335-337, Physical Science 7.4f - The Decay of Uranium.  
Embedding disabled, click here to watch.
Derek Owens talks about the process of Uranium decay to create a new Element, an alpha particle becoming helium; and the 16-steps that in turn produce different unstable elements, eventually becoming lead, which is stable.  The half-life of Uranium is 4.5 billion years. (p. 337 of your text)  That's how long it takes for each step.

Watch these last 2 several times during the chapter:
12) The Element Song with Lyrics, sung by Tom Lehrer  Really fast!  So just try to read along.  =)  Elements are not in order as they appear on the Periodic Table.

Lyrics to The Elements Song

13) Tom Lerher's "The Elements" song again, this time with animation.  Shows the symbols and placement within the Periodic Table.


  1. Thank you for sharing this information!!

  2. Thanks again for these! I use some of what you've posted every module.

    By the way... by #7 you wrote "neuron" twice instead of "neutron" :-)

    1. Thanks, Dana! I fixed it. Yes, neurons are in biology, lol. woops! =D
      And thanks for your comment. I'm happy when people let me know they're able to use what I've posted here. =)

  3. thank you so much for the extra links, etc. My son is struggling through this module and I am no help (lol I was an english major in college!!)

    1. You're welcome! I didn't know how much I enjoyed science until my kids got older. I think I like Physical Science the best. =) =)


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