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Monday, March 8, 2010

Apologia Physical Science, Module 2, Air

Interactive Study Links:
• Making flashcards at is a great way to study!  Create an account to be able save your flashcard sets to practice every day.  You can make cards for whatever you need to study in the chapter, not just vocabulary.  Here are some examples, but be careful if you use these; some have had errors.  You will learn a lot more if you make your flashcards yourself.

Other Study Links:
Keeping Dry - short experiment that shows air does take up space
Look at one Part per Million - simple illustration that shows just how much one part per million really is!  (Scroll to page 6)
See these and more at Debbie's Educator's Resources.  (Thanks, Debbie!)

(1) p. 28-29, The Air and Humidity

Relative Humidity Demo
Parents/educators, this would be a great one to do in class!  =)

(2) p. 30-33, The Composition of Air

Concentration of oxygen = combustion!  (Experiment "Oxygen and Fire")
Video of engineers at Purdue University in 1995 lighting a grill with liquid oxygen.
Do not try this at home!

(3) p. 33-38a, Carbon Dioxide in the Air

The Greenhouse Effect is a good thing.

The Greenhouse Effect
The "atmosphere" mentioned in the video is the ozone layer that is in the stratosphere (one of the layers in our atmosphere).

(4a) Global Warming, p. 38-43

In the following video:
--"My whole career, he's been going around saying, 'The climate changes all the time; get used to it.' " (at 2:25)
--"Cause and effect...  Temperatures go up, then CO2 concentrations go up; CO2 does not drive temperature."  (at 5:50)
--"We know now for certain that the temperature changes before the CO2..."  (at 5:30)
--"When I started out in 1970's, global cooling was the consensus."  (at 1:20)

In your textbook, we see that:
1% of one million is 10,000 parts of that million.
1% of 1,000,000 = 10,000 ppm.

Joe Bastardi (buh-STAR-dee) tells that carbon dioxide increases 1.5 ppm a year.
And that humans contribute 3% of that.  So human contribution is 1 part out of 20 million.  Per year!

Is Joe Bastardi correct?  Is 3% of 1.5 ppm equal to 1 part of 20 million???

1.5/1,000,000 = 30/20,000,000
And 3% of 30 = 0.9.  So rounding it up, it is indeed 1 part out of 20 million.

Getting back to the one million, 1.5 ppm is the same as $1.50 out of $1,000,000.
What is 3% of 1.5?
     0.03 x 1.5 = .045
So comparing the human contribution of carbon dioxide of the air to money, that is 4½ cents out of $1 million dollars.

►If 10,000 pmm is only 1% of a million, are you curious as to what percentage of a million is 1 ppm?
Use the formula:  ___ is what percentage of ____.
Fill in with the correct numbers.
      1 ppm  is what percentage of  1,000,000.
Put in an = sign for the word "is" and the "x" sign for the word "of."
     1 ppm = ___% x 1,000,000.
Divide both sides by 1,000,000.
     1 ppm = .0004%
That's four ten-thousandths of a percent!

►Review the Factor/Label method below.  Apply this method to learn how to figure percentages of ppm.
I had some students tell me, "But we didn't learn that one...." (on the videos, or in class, etc.) when doing the conversion problems I had sent home with them in Module 1.
Being able to apply something to another similar problem shows you learned it.  ;)

(4b) Review of the Factor/Label method, p. 42-43

(5) Ozone, p. 43-45

Ozone is the earth's natural sunscreen.  It screens ultraviolet radiations, or UV rays.


(6) Air Pollution, p. 45-51

This section talks about different kinds of air pollution and what has been done about them, and whether or not it is beneficial to spend huge amounts of money trying to get rid of other lesser pollutants.

In your textbook, many different kinds of oxides mentioned.
Wikipedia says, "An oxide is a chemical compound containing an oxygen atom and other elements.  Most of the earth's crust consists of oxides.  Oxides result when elements are oxidized by air (when oxygen in the air reacts with the element.)"
A list of well-known oxides.

Mentioned in your book are:
sulfur oxides (of which there is a sulfur dioxide and a sulfur trioxide), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxides.  You've probably heard of other 'oxides' such as hydrogen peroxide.
(Notice the above prefixes mon-, di-, tri-.)

How a Catalytic Converter converts gases

Cost/Benefit Analysis, or CBA.

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