►This site was originally created for my kids and their cousins, because we did science together. We eventually added more friends and I ended up having science classes for five years. I am no longer adding to the site (since 2014), but will leave it up for others' use. I do post to facebook occasionally if I come across something to share. =)

►Please accept my apology for any broken links or videos that do not work. I am always disappointed when people take down their videos from YouTube. It makes it hard to find just the right replacement. And because the videos were posted years ago, I usually have no recollection of what the video was about.
I kept thinking I would have time after my kids graduated, but life has filled up my free time with new responsibilities. =)

►Please do not email, asking me to post your website link, or to review something to put on my site. Any resources posted on this site are things I had found on my own during my regular searching for material I needed at the time, and liked it well enough to post here. There have never been any affiliates on my site, and as it is no longer active, would not be worthwhile at this point. ;)
Thank you!

Expelled: No Intelligence Allowed

This is available on Netflix, on DVD and Blue-ray.

But I also just discovered it on youtube.:)
It was on a user's channel and was out of order, so I saved them here. 

Info from Netflix:
2008, PG, 95 minutes
Hosted by Ben Stein, this controversial documentary examines how pro-intelligent design scholars and scientists are often chastised, fired or denied tenured positions by those who believe in Darwin's theory of evolution. Nathan Frankowski's film explores how scientists who believe in God are oppressed and how the acceptance of Darwinism might have played a role in the formation of the Nazi regime.

Apologia General Science, Module 7, The Fossil Record

What we did at Sahm-I-Am

Quizlet M7
• Look through these pictures to review types of fossils.

Petrified Paper
Three-Dimensional Geology
See these and more at Debbie's Educator's Resources.  (Thanks, Debbie!)
Homemade playdough for exp. 7.1 (video)
Example of making fossils for exp. 7.1 (video)
Leaf Impressions (model for carbon remains or impressions)

(1) p. 161-163, The Making of Fossils Part 1:  Casts and Molds
You may know what a jello mold is, or if you've ever played with play-do, you may have pressed it into a mold.
The mold is like the hollow imprint that you pour the jello into or press the play-do into.
A cast is the result you get from something being poured in, creating a copy of the shape of the mold.
Learn about real-life molds and casts.

►How molds and casts are sometimes made.  Part 1, Part 2


(2) p. 164-165, The Making of Fossils Part 2:  Petrifaction


(3) p. 165b-166, The Making of Fossils Part 3:  Carbonate Residues and Impressions
I can find no videos for this, so here are a few pictures


(4) p. 167-170, The Making of Fossils Part 4:  Avoiding Decomposition
Insects and other small animals can be trapped in amber, a kind of resin that is a sticky sap that hardens when exposed to air.
You will see that these amber-encased insects in this video are labeled as millions of years old.  However, we believe in a young earth - about 6,000 years old.

If insects trapped in amber WERE millions of years old, this would be evidence of NO evolution, since the "million" year old insects look just like today's insects.

If all living organisms descended from the same primitive life form, then the rock strata of the earth should be filled with the fossilized remains of animals that were once part of a great evolutionary chain.  There should be fossils in multiple stages of evolution.
The "missing links" are non-existent.


(5) p. 170-175, Three General Features of the Fossil Record

1.  Most fossils are found in sedimentary rock.  Since most sedimentary rock is laid down by water, it follows that most fossils were laid down by water as well.
Igneous rock is formed from magma, and most creatures trapped in magma are most likely to be burned up, so it isn't common to have fossils in igneous rock.
2.  Nearly 95% of all fossils on this planet are the fossils of clams and other hard-shelled organisms.  Most of the remaining fossils are of either water-dwelling creatures or insects.  Only a tiny fraction of the fossils we find are of plants, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
3.  The fossil record contains the remains of some plants and animals which are still living today.  Some of the fossils we find are of plants and animals which are now extinct.


(6) p. 175b-176, A Fourth General Feature of the Fossil Record

4.  The fossils found in one layer of stratified rock can be considerably different than the fossils found in another layer of the same stratified rock.

Trilobite images

The most common trilobite fossils are cast fossils.
They are found in the Grand Canyon's layers above the Great Unconformity.  Fossils of worms are found in the three strata directly above the Great Unconformity, and fossils of common fish we see today are found in the the top layer.
The answer to why these different types of fossils are in different strata is found in comparing catastrophism and uniformitarianism.

►See some trilobite molds and casts.

► Look through these pictures to review types of fossils from this module.


(7) p. 176-179, Geology and Paleontology from the Uniformitarian Viewpoint
The assumption of uniformitarianism is best summed up with the phrase, "The present is the key to the past."  In other words, uniformitarianists assume that how things are occurring today are how they have always happened.  The "uniform" in the word implies something stays the same.
There are many instances of local destructive floods that show that strata is indeed laid down by water.  Some instances are large-scale, however not as large as what the Flood caused in the Grand Canyon.  But they are great examples that geography can undergo vast changes in a short period of time.  We wouldn't want the Flood to happen again of course!  And in Genesis 9:11, God promised it wouldn't.


(8) p. 179-182, Geology and Paleontology from the Catastrophist Viewpoint
If rivers carve out huge canyons over millions of years, and if the earth were billions of years old, then every river, stream, and creek should be a Grand Canyon by now.

Interactive Thanksgiving Site

Interactive Thanksgiving Site at Scholastic.
Click to hear things read aloud throughout the site, click to take the journey (reads aloud automatically), or tour the ship, see the slideshow, click on the timeline and it will read aloud, etc.  Just about everything can be clicked on to the read aloud.
This is an awesome site, and your kids can spend several hours here.  =)

Find the Hidden Colors of Autumn Leaves

Just found this link and I'm saving it for when we do Biology again.  Posting for whoever needs it now.  =)
Find the Hidden Colors of Autumn Leaves.  
Looks pretty neat!  =)

Candy Experiments!

Came across this link this morning.
Candy Experiments.
I want to try the skittles one!  =)