Apologia Biology, Module 5, The Chemistry of Life, Part B

Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M5  
M5 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am 

--Review how to balance equations with this video.
--Then play Balancing Act! Choose Beginner.



(6) p. 140-142a Photosynthesis
In photosynthesis, a plant takes (1) carbon dioxide, (2) water,  and (3) the energy from sunlight and converts them into (A) a simple sugar called glucose which the plant needs for food, and into (B) oxygen which it does not need, but gives off for us to breathe.  
(there is a fourth thing needed, mentioned below)

"Carbon dioxide and water interact to make glucose and oxygen."  
Carbon dioxide + water → glucose + oxygen

--But it takes 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 molecules of water to get 1 molecule of glucose for the plant, and 6 molecules of oxygen left over.  The oxygen is sometimes called a by-product or waste product.  It isn't waste to us, but it is to the plant.
6CO2 +  6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 
Memorize this chemical equation.  Know the elements in each molecule, and what molecule they combine to make.  (For example, H2O is 2 atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of oxygen.  Together they make water) 
►The molecules to the left of the arrow are called reactantsThey react to make a product.
So the 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 2 molecules of water are the reactants.
6CO2 +  6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2 
The molecules to the right of the arrow are called products.
So the 1 molecule of glucose and 6 molecules of oxygen are the products.  They are produced as a result of the chemical reaction.

►►In order for photosynthesis to happen, more is needed than just carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight.
A fourth thing is needed called a catalyst, which speeds up a process.  And in a plant that catalyst is usually chlorophyll.  Chlorophyll, a green pigment, exists in a part of the leaf called chloroplasts.  The job of chlorophyll is to speed up photosynthesis so plants will have enough glucose for food.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (7) p. 142, Organic Chemistry ►An organic molecule is one that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous. If you memorized these last week, you will easily recognize these six elements.  Look in your textbook on p. 142 for examples of organic molecules and some that are not, and why.  Memorize these. ►Photosynthesis is an example of biosynthesis since photosynthesis takes smaller molecules (water and carbon dioxide) and makes a larger one (glucose).
6CO2 +  6H2O → C6H12O6 + 6O2
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (8) p. 142-146 Carbohydrates ►Carbohydrates contain only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.  You can see the 'carbo' in the name, for carbon.  And hydrogen and oxygen make water, thus 'hydrate' in the word carbohydrate. You may know that carbohydrates give you energy, and you've learned that glucose is a simple sugar. Look at a molecule of glucose: C6H12O You can see there are 6 atoms of carbon, 12 of hydrogen, and 6 of oxygen. There are twice as many hydrogen atoms as there are oxygen.  This is the same ratio as one molecule of water, H2O. ►When a molecule of glucose is drawn in structural formula, it shows which atoms are linked to which. When the atoms are linked in a straight line, we call it a chain structure. (on the left below) The chain structure of the glucose molecule below has a line of Carbon atoms, called a carbon chain.  But many atoms have more than one structural formula. The most commonly accepted form of glucose is the ring structure. These diagrams are not drawn exactly like the ones in the textbook, but if you look closely and compare to those in your textbook, you can see these indeed do represent glucose. In the ring structure on the right below ↓, CH2OH consists of the same atoms as drawn in your textbook, and the same as the chain structure here on the left, where C links to 2 H's, and to OH. You will remember in your textbook, in the chain formation, one oxygen atom had 2 lines linking to a carbon atom.  Here in the chain formation on the left, the solitary oxygen atom does have 2 links. If you look carefully and find that same oxygen atom in the ring formation on the right, you will again see the oxygen has 2 links linking to carbon. ETA: You will notice that the Oxygen is always connected to the Carbon.  That is why in the chain structure here on this blog, HO is written instead of OH.  The chain structure is vertical, so HO must be written this way so that the O is connected to the C. (I emailed Apologia; ha, I am not that smart!)  I was also told whether it was written as OH or HO did not matter as long as the Oxygen was attached to the Carbon.  This is not apparent in the figures in your textbook, as the picture is drawn horizontally, and the connecting line seems to attach to both the O and H, but here it is clear that the Carbon is attached directly to the Oxygen.
She says, "...it is very polar... to which water molecules can hydrogen bond." You may remember from Physical Science that water has a hydrogen bond and is polar. (8b) p.144, Isomers  (Carbohydrates, cont.) Isomers are two different molecules that have the exact same chemical formula.  They are different molecules because of their different structural formulas.
Glucose and Fructose are isomers.  They have the same atoms (C6H12O6), but in their structural formula, their atoms are linked together slightly differently.  This is the reason they taste different.   (8c) p. 145-146 (Carbohydrates, cont.) Glucose and fructose are monosaccharides, also called simple sugars.  You may know that the prefix mono- means one. Disaccharides are carbohydrates made up of two monosaccharides.  You may remember that Carbon-Dioxide (CO2) has one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen.  Di- means two. Polysaccharides are made up of more than two monosaccharides.  Poly- means many. Table sugar is not glucose (a monosaccharide), but is a disaccharide called sucrose. Sucrose is formed when glucose and fructose (which are isomers) chemically react in a dehydration reaction. When something is dehydrated, water is removed.  So from the combined molecules of glucose and fructose, H2O is removed, and the result is sucrose (a dehydration reaction) -- C12H22O11  
C6H12O6   C6H12OC12H22O11 + H2O
Remember, sucrose is a disaccharide because it was formed from two monosaccharides in the process of dehydration. ►What two molecules combine in a dehydration reaction to make the disaccharide lactose? When several monosaccharides link together, it is called a polysaccharide.  Polysaccharides aren't usually sweet.  An example is starch, and is found in most plants.  When a plant has extra monosaccharides, it will store them as polysaccharides by having many dehydration reactions that link the monosaccharides together. Kind of like when your Mom has a lot of a apples, she may dehydrate some to use in baking later, except in a dehydration reaction, not only do the monosaccharides lose water, they are actually combined into polysaccharides. If they are now polysaccharides because they have lost water, what will the plant do to turn them back into monosaccharides?  The opposite of dehydration is hydration.  The plant breaks down disaccharides or polysaccharides back into their monosaccharide components by adding water.  This is called hydrolysis.  (Think of the word hydrate.) When humans and animal have excess carbohydrates, their bodies make a starch called glycogen. So the reverse of the dehydration of fructose and glucose to form sucrose, would be hydrolysis of sucrose to make glucose and fructose.  This chemical reaction is achieved by honeybees when they make honey. ►If you want, you can read more here about this and other processes we have studied.  Also see "Respiration" which is mentioned in the next Module.  See if you recognize the molecules.  =) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (9) p. 146-147, Organic Acids and Bases Acids usually taste sour, while bases tend to taste bitter.  Fruit juice contains acid, and many cleaning products contain bases.
If acids and bases react together, they usually form water and another class of molecule called "salts."  Table salt is one example.
Acid Group
►Organic acids contain a certain pattern of atoms bonded together:  Oxygen has a double bond with Carbon, indicated by 2 lines, and the Carbon has a bond with OH.  (O=C-OH) This pattern is called an acid group. → (In the chain structure of glucose on p. 143 (top of page), you see a double bond of C with O, but that same C does not bond directly with OH, that molecule does not contain an acid group, and therefore is not an organic acid.) When you see this grouping withinin a molecule, you will know the molecule is an organic acid. This special grouping is NOT a molecule by itself; it is a grouping that can be IN a molecule.
This molecule has an acid group,
so this molecule is an organic acid.
← This molecule has an acid group in it, so the whole molecule is an organic acid.Organic bases have a group of atoms in common called the amine group, but in this chapter, organic bases are just mentioned and not discussed.  If you or someone you know has a pool, you know that they may use pool strips to check the pH of the water to keep it from turning green!  Keeping the pH balanced is necessary for clean water. The pH of substances other than water can also be measured. ►See videos of what we did.  (scroll down) The pH scale runs from 0-14.  For solutions measuring lower pH than 7, the lower the pH, the more acid. For solutions having a pH higher than 7, the higher the pH, the more like a base the solution becomes.  These are said to be alkaline. Look at the chart on p. 147 to see which substances are acids or bases, and which are neutral. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
(10) p. 148-149, Lipids Lipids (or fats) link to glycerol in a dehydration reaction.  One glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acid molecules have a dehydration reaction to make 1 lipid molecule and 3 water molecules. Lipids cannot be dissolved in water.  An example is cooking oil.  Lipids are said to be hydrophobic.  This does not mean it is afraid of water, haha, but that is a good way to remember it.  =) Animals can convert excess carbohydrates into glycogen, but lipids can actually store twice as much energy for when food is scarce.  Saturated fats are called "saturated" because they have all the hydrogens it can take.  It is "saturated" with hydrogen. These saturated fats have no double bonds between carbons. Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond between carbon atoms. Do not watch this until after you have thoroughly studied pages 148-149. Then watch it twice and try to catch all the things you have learned.  =) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (11) p. 149b-154, Proteins and Enzymes Proteins come in many different shapes and sizes and are very complex.  Their basic building blocks are amino acids.  When amino acids link up using a dehydration reaction, a peptide bond forms. The structural formula for a protein very complex.  An average amino acid has about 20-40 atoms, and the most simple protein has 124 amino acids.  But an average protein has several thousand amino acids! Enzymes are a special class of proteins that act as catalysts.  For animals, these catalysts speed up the breaking down process of polysaccharides and disaccharides. Most enzymes do their job based on the shape that the enzyme molecule has.  After studying 151-152 and Figure 5.9, watch this video. Remember, lactose is a disaccharide.  If the particular enzyme in someone's body that is specifically designed  for the lactose disaccharide is unable to work properly, a person will not be able to digest the lactose that is in milk.  There are medicines to help this, however. ►Be able to explain what happened in Experiment 5.3, The Fragility of an Enzyme. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ (12) p. 154-156, DNA ►Study Figure 5.10 as you read the text, learning the parts of a DNA strand. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is formed in a double chain. These two chains are made up of three basic parts:
  1. deoxyribose (a simple sugar that contains 5 carbons)
  2. phosphate group (an arrangement of 3 things:  phosphorous, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms - see the picture on the right of Figure 5.10 in your textbook)
  3. a nucleotide base
The nucleotide's base can be one of four different types:  adenine, thymine, guanine, or cytosine.  Notice which pairs are consistently linked together in this image.   (source) The phosphate groups link to the deoxyribose units, which is what the outer "rails" of the DNA strand is made of.    Click for a cool DNA game.  =)

Apologia Biology, Module 5, The Chemistry of Life, Part A

Module 5, Part B
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M5 
M5 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am 



Wow.  I am once again amazed as I read this module and see how complicated Life really is, knowing that this just scratches the surface of the complexities of God's creation.

(1) p. 125-128  Atoms: The Basic Building Blocks of Matter
Atoms & Electrons 



The Structure of an Atom. I think at 4:00 minutes, he may have meant that "electrons would be like little pieces of dust flying around."



►Click to play an Elements Math Game
►Uncheck Neutrons and Nucleons, unless you are familiar with these.
Choose how many you would like to practice.  Play as many times as you like.







(2) p. 128-129  Elements
Memorize Table 5.1 on p. 129.
Be able to name them without looking.  Know how to spell them correctly.
These are important, and you will see these six elements mentioned several times throughout the module. 
You need to know the difference between S-32 (or ³²S) and just plain S, and other elements and atoms like these.  Be able to explain in sentences what the differences are.
►And know what the number 32  means.  Or whatever number is written with any atom.
►Click to play the Elements Math Game again.  This time, only uncheck Nucleons. 

The Elements 




►See this awesome chart of the Periodic Table of the Elements with pictures!







(3) p. 130-131  Molecules
Remember, ³²S or S is only one element - Sulfur.  Some elements do have two letters (such as Fe), but only the first letter is ever capitalized.  That is how you know how many different elements there are in a chemical formula.
►How many different kinds of elements are in CO2?  (Two - Carbon and Oxygen)
How many elements are in Nb2O2? (Two)
►How many total atoms are in  CO2?  (Three - 1 of Carbon and 2 of Oxygen)
So how many atoms are in Nb2O2? (Four)

Atoms in Molecules 


►Is CO2 the same as ²CO?
One of these is not anything.  Which is it?  Why?
►Is  CH4 an element, atom, or a molecule?  Why?






(4) p. 133-138 Physical Change
Diffusion and Osmosis
Video explaining Diffusion - then take the quiz! (more videos on the side)
Thanks to Julie for posting this link.  =)

(note: In this video, he says hypertonic and hypotonic - two different words)
In both diffusion and osmosis, the concentration of solute is evened out in the solvent, but in different ways.  

►In your notebook, draw, label, and write the descriptions of Figure 5.2, The Difference between Diffusion and Osmosis.
Draw the beginning and end stages for both Diffusion and Osmosis. 
(1) the dividing membrane (solid line for semipermeable ( ___ ), dashed line (- - -) for fully permeable), 
(2) the solvent in correct volumes on each side of the membrane, and 
(3) the solute in correct concentrations on each side of the membrane. 
(4) Write the descriptions
Osmosis

►An excellent animation.  It starts out showing diffusion.  Then you add salt (a solute) and it changes to osmosis. 


►The figure on the right represents the end stage for Osmosis. →
--The dividing center line is solid ( ___ ), not dashed (- - -).  A solid line  indicates a semipermeable membrane.  (partly permeable)
--Only a solvent can pass thru a semipermeable membrane, so the solvent is attracted to the side of the membrane that has a higher concentration of a solute. 
--Like in your experiment 5.2, the water that is in vinegar was drawn to the thicker center of the raw egg.  The water could pass thru the semipermeable membrane of the egg.  Later, the water that was in the vinegar was drawn to the thick Karo syrup, so it seeped out of the egg into the syrup.  In the last step of my experiment when I put the egg in distilled water, the egg absorbed more water than it did vinegar in the first step.  So maybe water has smaller molecules?  Hmmmm.  I should email Apologia about that.  No, they said that vinegar is made up of LOTS of solute, and only a little water.  That is why not as much liquid went into the egg as when it was in distilled water. 
--In this figure, only the solvent can pass thru the semipermeable membrane, and in the end the concentration of solute is evened out in the solvent.
►In diffusion, both the solute that is in the high concentration area and the solvent can pass freely back and forth through the fully permeable membrane, so the water level would stay the same on both sides, but still the concentration of solute would get evened out in the solvent.    






(5) p. 139-140 Chemical Change
Learn how to balance equations with this video.
Then play the game linked below the video.


►Click to play Balancing Act! at Jefferson Lab.  
►Choose Beginner.

The molecules to the left of the arrow are called reactantsThey react to make a new product.
The molecules to the right of the arrow are called productsThey are produced as a result of the chemical reaction.



Chemical and Physical Change









►First, study the following.
Physical Change:
1) Atoms do not rearrange (switch partners).
2) Only physical properties change. Chemical properties do not change.
3) Physical changes are generally easy to reverse.
4) No energy is produced by the substance.
Example of all of the above: An ice cube (H2O) melts in the sun and turns into water (H2O).

Chemical Change:
1) Atoms are rearranged into different molecules. There will be a new chemical formula.
2) Both physical and chemical properties are changed.
3) Changes are not reversible without another reaction.
4) Energy is often produced (fire or heat, for example, or energy for humans or plants).

► Next, go to this worksheet on Physical and Chemical changes.  See if you know if the changes are physical or chemical.
Click on "Go to the worksheet answers" to see how you did.  If you got some wrong, try to figure out why.


More posted in Module 5, Part B

Apologia Biology, Module 4, Kingdom Fungi, Part C

Module 4, Part A
Module 4, Part B.
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M4 
M4 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am
Mold! (blog post at SAI cont.) 
• Great drawings and explanation of the Life Cycle of a Mushroom

(1) p. 115
Phylum Chytridiomycota (kye trid' ee oh my koh' tuh)
Remember this silly phrase, Kye tridd-y o(n) my coat.     

Ewwwww!!! This next phylum looks gross.  Just look at these potatoes!  (scroll down)
This fungi is definitely a parasite, and apparently can exist in the soil for quite some time.   But according to Apologia Biology, "However, most commercial potatoes grown today are resistant to this fungus."
Thank goodness.
This is commonly known as potato wart, caused by a parasitic chytrid called Synchytrium endobioticum
Phylum Chytridiomycota contains the single-celled fungi called chytrids (kye' trids).
Chytrids live in areas that are muddy or watery.  Some species are parasitic like the one above, but most are saprophytic, and feed on decaying water plants.
These are different than other fungi in that they don't have spores to be carried by the wind or other means.
Instead they have flagella, and can move on their own.




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(2) p. 115-116
Phylum Deuteromycota (doo' ter oh my koh' tuh) - The Imperfect Fungi
Dude, yer o(n) my coat!  (my favorite one) 

Since most scientists assume that every fungus has some phase of sexual reproduction, if a fungus cannot actually be determined to have sexual reproduction, it is placed in this "phylum" until it can be better classified.  It is "on hold" I guess.  =)  That is why they are often called the imperfect fungi.
This may be faulty reasoning, since there may be some who only reproduce asexually.  These will forever be "on hold" while they go on and do exactly as God designed them to anyway!  =)
One such very useful "imperfect" fungi actually is quite perfect for what God designed it to do.  This fungi comes from a blue mold from the genus Penicillium.
In 1928, Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, the first antibiotic.


Other members of the genus Penicillium are useful because they flavor certain kinds of cheese.  These are not the same species as the one that produces penicillin; they are just in the same genus.




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p. 117-119
Phylum Myxomycota (myk' so my koh' tuh)  Mike, sew my coat.  
This is another controversial phylum.  Most modern textbooks place phylum Myxomycota in kingdom Protista.  Apologia chose to leave it in its traditional place, kingdom Fungi.  Rather than categorize it in kingdom Protista because of the way it feeds, they consider reproduction a better reason to categorize it in kingdom Fungi.
This fungi is saprophytic and is harmless, but it looks gross!  They are typically called slime molds
This first video has no gross pictures, so relax and watch.  =)


This second video may appear gross, but actually, it looks a little like gel.  Like that homemade slime that kids like to play with.  I made some blue slime once for my nieces and nephews.
They played with it at my house and did not take it home.
The mothers were happy.  =)
Around 20 seconds or so, this slime mold starts to look like little fingers branching out.






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p. 119-120 Symbiosis in Kingdom Fungi
There are two different forms of symbiosis in kingdom Fungi.
Both of these forms of symbiosis are mutualistic. (Both members of the symbiotic relationship benefit from their relationship.)

(A) Lichens (lie'-kuns, not lich-ens) are produced by a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an algae.  (See images of lichens)
The fungus is usually of phylum Ascomycota (p. 109), and the algae is usually of phylum Chlorophyta. (p. 86).
Lichens are produced when the algae, by means of photosynthesis, produces food for itself and the fungus.  The fungus supports and protects the algae.


(B) The second form of mutualisitic symbiosis in kingdom fungi is called a mycorrhiza (my' kuh rye' zuh) or a "fungus root."
In a mycorrhiza or "fungus root" relationship, the fungus absorbs nutrients from the roots, and in return, the fungus gives the plant needed minerals.





Westward Movement: The Industrial Revolution, Transportation, Communication

1789, Samuel Slater came to America, violating England's emigration law that was designed to keep skilled craftsmen in their own country.  In Rhode Island, he built the necessary spinning machinery to operate a cotton factory.
More factories soon sprang up in the North.  This proved to be a huge advantage for the Northerners later during the Civil War.

In 1793, the cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney.  



Whitney was also called the "Father of Mass Production" for his method of producing guns.  Previously, only skilled craftsmen made muskets one at a time.  Whitney made it possible for even unskilled workers to assemble many muskets, using uniform parts.       

Elias Howe's sewing machine

James Watt's improved steam engine.  The steam engine allowed factories to be built anywhere, not just beside swiftly flowing streams where they used to need the waterpower for their factories.

1834, Cyrus McCormick's reaper

1807, Robert Fulton's steamboat, the Clermont





The Erie Canal


1825, The Erie Canal

Laying track for railroads

1836, Samuel Morse invented the telegraph

1860, the Pony Express was a fast way of communicating, taking less than half the usual time to get a letter across the country.  It only lasted 19 months due to the completion of telegraph lines all the way to California.
See this Want Ad for the Pony Express.



The War of 1812

The War of 1812 lasted nearly 3 years.
The United States ships and sailors were being seized by the British and used in their war against France.
Our 4th president, President James Madison sent diplomats to England to work out a peaceful solution.  Two days before Congress voted for war, the British agreed to one of America's two chief demands.  But in times when there was no quick means of communication and it took weeks to cross the Atlantic Ocean, Congress had not heard of this newest development.
When the effort for a peaceful solution appeared to fail,  President Madison asked Congress to declare war on England for their unlawful attack and seizure of United States ships and sailors
The War of 1812 was fought on land and sea.  America's most famous ship, the U.S.S. Constitution remained undefeated.  It became known as "Old Ironsides" because of it's resistance to the British guns.  It has been restored several times, and today it floats in the Boston harbor in Massachusetts.

In Boston harbor


Early in the war, the Americans had mounted an attack on the British in York, Canada (now Toronto).  They ended up looting and burning public buildings in York and destroyed the records of the province.
Then in August of 1814, the British fleet landed without any resistance and marched on Washington.  After battling American soldiers, the British set fire to the Capitol, the White House, and other government buildings.  Dolly Madison, the president's wife, was able to gather many valuable state papers and a portrait of George Washington from the White House before it burned.
In 1814 at the battle to capture Baltimore, the British were unable to defeat the soldiers inside Fort McHenry.  When the battle began, Francis Scott Key was aboard a nearby British warship, attempting to negotiate the exchange of prisoners.  After an all-night bombardment, there was little hope that the soldiers inside Fort McHenry were still alive, but at dawn, the American flag was still standing, the fort untaken.
Francis Scott Key then penned the words to The Star-Spangled Banner.


The last battle of the war was fought in New Orleans, in January of 1815.  The British suffered great casualties - over 2,000 men.  This would seem to be an enormous victory if the Peace Treaty had not already been signed.  News arrived by ship on February 11, 1815, about 2 weeks after the peace treaty had been signed in Europe.
The War of 1812 did not really settle any issues over which the war was fought.  Peace returned and so was any territory and prisoners that were captured.  But the United States didn't feel they had fought for nothing;  they had shown they would fight for their rights and that this young nation was here to stay. 

Apologia Module 4, Kingdom Fungi, Part B

Module 4, Part A
Module 4, Part C
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M4 
M4 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am
Mold! (blog post at SAI cont.) 
• Great drawings and explanation of the Life Cycle of a Mushroom

(1) p. 103-108
Phylum Basidiomycoata (buh sid' ee oh my koh' tuh)
Remember the silly phrase, bus city o(n) my coat.  =)
This phylum is often referred to as the "club fungi" because the spores are formed on club-shaped cells known as basidia (sing. basidium).  So now there's a club in this bus city!
The spores are called basidiospores.  (see image)
These spores are the result of sexual reproduction between mycelia.
Mushrooms are the most common examples of this phylum.  Most of these fungi are saprophytic (feed off dead organisms), but some are parasitic (feed off a living host).

p. 103-105 Reproduction of Basidiomycota
Some mushrooms form spores on basidia on the gills of a mushroom.


p. 105 Fairy Ring
A "fairy ring" (see image, source) grows a certain way because the saprophytic mycelium under the surface of the ground is ever growing outward, in search of dead organisms for food.  As they spread, the old hyphae in the middle will die as there is no longer food in that area, but the hyphae at the edge of the mycelium are still finding food.  When it is time to reproduce, the living hyphae at the edge of the ring produce fruiting bodies, thus forming a fairy ring.  Each year, the ring gets larger.


p. 106 Puffballs
These mushrooms form spores on basidia inside a membrane rather than on the gills of the mushroom cap.
Their spores are spread by being carried by the wind, so they are unlikely to grow in patches.


p. 106 Shelf Fungi
(see images) Shelf fungi found on dead wood are saprophytes.  Shelf fungi found on living trees are parasites.

p. 107 Rust
There are different kinds of these parasites: stem rust, leaf rust, stripe rust, and more (see images).

Some kinds of rust need a main host and an alternate host, such as the wheat rust (see image) that produces a red spore on the wheat until the wheat season ends.  Then it forms a different type of spore and in the spring will find an alternate host on the leaves of a barberry bush.  The spores formed here can find their way back to the wheat, and can continue this cycle.



Stem Rust


Wheat Rust


►Another video on wheat rust.


p. 107 Smuts
More parasites: smuts on barley, leaf, corn and grass.




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(2) p. 109-112 
Phylum Ascomycota (ask' uh my koh' tuh)  Ask-a my coat!
Memebers of this phylum are both single-celled and multicellular.  They form their spores in protective membranes (sacs) of various shapes that are referred to as sac fungi.
The spores are called ascospores.
The organisms in this phylum that are single-celled are usually called yeasts, and most are syprophytic, although there are some that are parasitic.  Most have a form of asexual reproduction called budding, as pictured on p. 111 in Experiment 4.2, Yeast and the Fermentation Process.
Besides the nucleus, about the only organelle in a yeast cell is a vacuole that stores food, and certain chemicals the yeast needs.  Certain species of yeast store substances useful to humans in these vacuoles.
We are most familiar with yeast that is used in baking.  That kind of yeast feeds on sugars in bread dough.


Budding yeast in bread dough.


What do yeast like to eat?


Other members of phylum Ascomycota:
►Morels (see images) are edible but have toxic look-alikes.  These form their ascospores in the protective openings on the mushroom.
►Cup Fungi (see images) form their ascospores inside the cup.  When rain hits the cup, the force of impact releases the ascospores.

Remember, these and morels are sometimes called sac fungi since they form their spores in protective membranes (sacs) that are shaped like globes, flasks, or dishes.

Many other fungi that cause disease are also in phylum Ascomycota such as ergot of rye which can be deadly to humans.  Some fungi can cause diseases in trees like Dutch elm disease and chestnut blight.




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(3) p. 112-114
Phylum Zygomycota (zye' goh my koh' tuh)  Zygo, my coat.  (Who names their coat?)
This phylum contains those fungi that form zygospores, a zygote surrounded by a hard, protective covering.

The mold that grows on bread is a member of phylum Zygomycota. 
♦Bread molds can reproduce asexually though stolons (runners).
♦They can reproduce asexually by releasing spores.
♦They can reproduce sexually by forming a zygospore.  Although all three means of reproduction are used, it is this last form of sexual reproduction that classifies them in phylum Zygomycota.

Awesome diagram of what bread mold looks like up close.
Bread Mold



More in Part C.

Commutative and Associative Properties of Multiplication

(1) Commutative Property of Multiplication - YourTeacher.com
Commutative is changing the order, even in a problem with 3 or more terms.
You commute to work, and pass the gas station, the library, and Walmart.
On the way home, you decide to go by the library first, then Walmart, then the gas station.
You commuted in a different route.


(2) Associative Property of Multiplication - YourTeacher.com
Associative is changing the grouping.  9 x (3 x 6) = 9 x (6 x 3) is not changing the grouping.  That is an example of the commutative property.
Jack and Tom are your best friends.  Sometimes you go to Jack's house; sometimes you go to Tom's house.  Sometimes Tom and Jack go to each other's houses.  You can associate with either friend, and you are all still friends no matter what grouping you are in.  You, Tom, and Jack.


(3) Commutative and Associative Property - MuchoMath (Professor Perez and Charlie)


(4) In this video, you can pause and work out the problems yourself, then see if you are right. 


Distributive Property of Multiplication

(1) Distributive Property of Multiplication - YourTeacher.com


(2) Distributive Property of Multiplication - Mucho Math (Professor Perez and Charlie)


(3) In this video, you can pause and work out the problems yourself, then see if you are right.


Apologia Biology, Module 4, Kingdom Fungi, Introduction, Part A

Module 4, Part C
Quizlet Vocabulary Game, M4 
M4 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am
Mold! (blog post at SAI cont.) 

• Great drawings and explanation of the Life Cycle of a Mushroom

This post covers only the first few pages of Module 4, but it is looong since I wanted to cover it well.
So this will be Part A, the introduction, and Part B will cover 3 of the 6 phyla in more detail.  Part C will cover the last 3 phyla in this module.


There's a fungus among us!  =)

(1) p. 97-101a, General Characteristics of Fungi
Although mushrooms are the most common fungi, there are many other kinds as well.  Some fungi are pathogenic (disease-causing), but there are also helpful fungi:  some fungi are used in making cheese, others are used in baking, and even some in medicine.

Most fungi are multicellular; a few are single-celled.  But whether multicellular or unicellular, their cells are all eukaryotes (each cell having membrane-bound organelles, each organelle performing a particular job).  Their cells usually have many nuclei.

Most of the organisms in this kingdom are heterotrophs (can't make their own food).
Some of these heterotrophic fungi are parasitic (feed on living matter), but most are saprophytic (feed on dead matter).  The saprophytic fungi are decomposers that promote the decay of once-living matter.  Otherwise, leaves would pile up each fall year after year, not to mention dead animals, and other things that decompose.
►(Listen or Read this 2-minute Creation Moment with Ian Taylor)

Saprophytic or parasitic, they both digest their food outside of their bodies.  They secrete a chemical onto the food that digests the food before it is ingested (eaten).  The digested food is then absorbed into the cell of the fungus.

Extracellular (outside the cell) digestion can be beneficial to other organisms that can often absorb some of the nutrients before the fungus has a chance to absorb them.
♦Read How Fungi Get their Food



In addition to other various means of reproduction, the one means of reproduction all fungi have in common is by making spores.
Most fungi are multicellular, and will grow a specialized structure for that particular type of fungus for the purpose of producing spores.
For example, a mushroom has basidia on which their basidiospores form. (see image
A spore print (see image) can be made by laying a mushroom cap on paper for several hours or overnight, covered by a bowl or jar to prevent air currents from disturbing the spores.


Here is a video of a puffball mushroom's spores.  Its spores can be harmful if breathed in. They have a hole in the top and the spores puff out like smoke from a chimney.  =)


The general structure of a mushroom is easy to see.  There is the cap, which has the gills underneath (where the spores grow), and the stalk which is called the stipe.
This is all called the fruiting body(see image)

What is not seen is actually the most amazing.  Some may not realize a mushroom's main structure is underground.
This underground root-like structure is called the mycelium (my see' lee um). (see image)
It kind of looks like a whole bunch of tangled roots.
It typically is ten to twenty times larger than its stalk, but I've read that it can be as large as a soccer field! 
The mycelium are not roots.
It does not pull nutrients and water from the soil (like roots do) to be transported to the rest of the plant because the mycelium is the main part of the plant.  The mushroom's stalk and cap exist only at a certain stage, and are just an extension of the fungus's main body - the mycelium.
If you think about the fruit on a vine or tree, you can easily understand that the fruiting body is just something that grows periodically from the mycelium.

The mycelium is composed of many interwoven filaments called hypha (hi' fuh).
►See image of septate and non-septate hyphae. (source)
There are septate hypha that have individual cells separated from one another by cell walls.  There is usually a pore (opening) through which cytoplasm can be passed between cells. 
Nonseptate hypha looks like one long cell.  There are no walls.
Both types of hyphae (hi' fee) have nuclei which are represented by the dark spots in the hyphae.

Remember that protists and monerans have cells that group together in colonies, but the cells do not exchange cytoplasm.  Plants and animals are multicellular, but their individual cells are completely separate and do not exchange cytoplasm.
But in kingdom Fungi, the cells are not completely separate.


In the video, she says coenocytic threads.  This is the same as nonseptate.



There are many different hyphae that perform different tasks.  If a hypha is part of the mycelium (the part that grows below the soil), it is called a rhizoid hypha.
The job of rhizoid hyphae is to support the fungus and digest the food.  These hyphae are considered the main body of the fungus.

An aerial hypha is not embedded in the main body of the fungus, and as its name implies, it sticks up in the air.  It looks like a stem.
Aerial hyphae can do one of three things:
(1) absorb oxygen from the air
(2) produce spores
(3) asexually reproduce to form new filaments (hyphae)

♦If an aerial hypha asexually reproduces more hyphae, it is called a stolon (see image) -- a runner that grows along the ground, producing more offspring.
♦If an aerial hypha produces spores, it is specified as a sporophore.

Sporophores can be:
(A) a sporangiophore (see imageif its spores are formed within an enclosusre,
(B) a conidiophore (see imageif the sporophore's spores are not formed within an enclosure.
(Source of images - scroll up)

►(Something silly to help you remember: 
"Angie" will form spores in an enclosure.  A con who is an idiot will not form spores in an enclosure.) I did warn you it was silly!  lol.
Not all fungi have all these structures, however.



Awesome diagram of what bread mold looks like up close.  
Bread Mold


If a fungus feeds on a living organism, a hypha can actually enter the cells of the living organism and draw nutrients directly from the cytoplasm of the living organism's cells.  This kind of hypha is an extension of the mycelium and is called a haustorium (haw stor' ee uhm) (see imagesource)
Since it feeds on a living host, this kind of fungus is parasitic.


Now that you are more familiar with the terminology, watch this video of how fungi obtain food. Listen for the different kinds of symbiosis that you learned in Module 3.





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(2) p. 101, Reproduction in Kingdom Fungi
►All fungi reproduce by making spores.  Some fungi also reproduce in other ways, as well.
♦The sexual reproduction involves structures called fruiting bodies, as a result of compatible hyphae.
Once the fruiting body is formed, it grows out of the mycelium and releases its spores.  The mushroom is just part of the fruiting body of the mycelium of a type of fungus.
♦Some sexual reproduction does not lead to a fruiting body; it just produces a new hypha.

Time lapse of a fruiting body: 
Psilocybe cubensis


Amanita muscaria


♦Asexual spore formation is accomplished by a hypha that becomes either a sporangiophore or a conidiophore.
♦There are other means of asexual reproduction that does not involve spores.  These involve hyphae cells in the mycelium that cause the mycelium to grow.  Also the cells within a stolon will reproduce asexually, causing the stolon to grow.  The stolon will reproduce into hyphae that will form a new mycelium of a new fungus.  This is repeated, often causing long chains of fungi, all linked together by stolons.



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(3) p. 102, Classification in Kingdom Fungi
There are six phyla in kingdom Fungi, and as I read these and sounded out the pronunciations, I kept seeing "mycota" on the end.  My coat...  And then more words came into my mind.
►Here are some silly phrases to help you remember the phyla in the kingdom Fungi:
Basidiomycota (buh sid' ee oh my koh' tuh)  Like a bus city o(n) my coat.
Ascomycota (ask' uh my koh' tuh)  Ask-a my coat!
Zygomycota (zye' goh my koh' tuh)  Zygo, my coat.  (Who names their coat?)
Chytridiomycota (kye trid' ee oh my koh' tuh)  Kye tridd-y o(n) my coat.
Deuteromycota (doo' ter oh my koh' tuh)  Dude, yer o(n) my coat!  (my favorite one)
Myxomycota (myk' so my koh' tuh)  Mike, sew my coat.  (He'd have to after all the people who have been on it, even a city of buses!)
I added the pronunciation marks the way the man pronounces it on the multimedia CD, which is different than the way it is written in your text book.  However, just practicing and getting familiar with one way of pronouncing these is more important than which pronunciation you choose.



After practicing the pronunciations so you will recognize them, sometimes pronounced a little differently in this video, watch this overview of kingdom Fungi.
Part 1 Skip up to 0:50.


Part 2 Ignore the part near the end about evolution. =(




More at Module 4, Part B.