M1 Recap Blog Post at Sahm-I-Am
Note: There is quite a bit of vocabulary in this module (chapter), so please memorize all new terminology. It is necessary to know these to be able to better understand future modules.
This is good practice throughout the book, as each module will build on previous ones.
(1) p. 1-6, What is Life?... DNA and Life... Energy Conservation and Life
DNA stands for "deoxyribonucleic acid." Hear pronunciation. Click on the little speaker.
Click to see animated images of DNA structures. This is just to familiarize yourself with what DNA strands can look like as they are rotated.
More images of DNA
Metabolism - the sum total of all processes in an organism which convert energy and matter from outside sources and use that energy and matter to sustain the organism’s life functions.
►Metabolism involves two main steps, so the "sum total" consists of these two steps:
- catabolism (n.) - the breaking down of chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks, like when your body digests food.
- anabolism (n.) - the use of this energy and simple chemical building blocks to produce large chemicals and structures necessary for life.
A silly video to help you remember the difference between catabolism and anabolism:
Producers, Consumers, and Decomposers
• Producers (plants and algae) make their own food.
• Consumers (humans and animals) get their food from another source.
• Decomposers break down the remains of other dead organisms.
These are fungi (mushrooms, yeast, mold, etc). Although they are consumers (since they do not make their own food), they are classified separately as Decomposers because they play a distinct role in Creation by "recycling" dead organisms.
Consumers are further classified by what they eat.
• Herbivores are consumers that eat only producers (plants and/or algae).
• Carnivores are consumers that eat only other consumers.
They are meat-eaters only, like lions or tigers, (but not bears), oh my!
• Omnivores are consumers that eat both producers and consumers.
Bears eat fish as well as berries; so do I! =)
Apologies for the clicking at the beginning. It does go away, I promise. =)
Click to learn about autotrophs, heterotrophs, and photosynthesis. Read the entire page.
Don't miss clicking on the green word parts of photo + synthesis.
Learn how plants produce oxygen.
(2) p. 6b-9, Sensing and Responding to Change... All Life Forms Reproduce... Life's Secret Ingredient
I could find no videos for these sections.
(3) p. 9-1, The Scientific Method
The Scientific Method
In the video below, the guy is right. Many things cannot be proven like evolution, the big bang, but that also includes Creation. In order to be proven, something must be able to be repeated and observed.
Therefore as Christians led by the Holy Spirit, we can believe by faith the Biblical account of the origin of the universe. =)
►The Scientific Method at Biology4Kids
►Learn to be independent of fill-in lab forms. Have a guide on another sheet of paper, kind of like what is shown at this website (be sure it covers what your teacher is asking of you), and eventually you will memorize what things to include, and in what order.
(4) p. 12-16, Limitations of the Scientific Method... Spontaneous Generation
(5) p. 16-18a, Biological Classification
►Please watch this great video of King Philip and the Biological Classification System.
(Embedding was disabled, so I could not post it here.) =(
During the video, he gives the genus and species for a mountain lion. On the screen it says, "Felis Concolor." The spelling and name are correct, but it should be written as Felis concolor with only the first word capitalized and both words italicized.
The genus and species are the only two categories in the Biological Classification system whose proper names will be italicized.
The proper name of a species is always written in lowercase.
Order of the Biological Classification system:
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species
The words themselves, "kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species" are not capitalized in sentences unless they precede the proper name. Such as Kingdom Animalia, or Phylum Chordata.
The proper name of a species is never capitalized.
See the last two on p. 17 for the Bald Eagle.
Use this mnemonic to help you remember the order: King Phillip Cried Out, "For Goodness Sake!"
Write your own mnemonic. =)
(6) p. 18-20, Characteristics Used to Separate Organisms into Kingdoms
All living cells are divided into two types:
-prokaryotic or eukaryotic.
►All plant and animal cells are eukaryotic. Plants and animals have many, many cells. They are "multi-cellular."
►Only bacteria are prokaryotic. Each bacterium is made of one cell. They are "single-celled" or "single-cellular."
(There are other single-celled organisms beside bacteria, but they have eukaryotic cells.)
Prokaryotic cells do not have organelles (little organs) like a eukaryotic cell does.
►See this image that compares the two kinds of cells.
--In the cytoplasm (jelly-like center, sometimes called cytosol) of a prokaryotic cell, there are ribosomes and DNA.
--In the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, there are many organelles, each with their own job.
►Prokaryotic DNA is arranged in a winding, circular shape, connecting end-to-end. There is only one replication origin (original DNA strand) when replication (copying of DNA) starts. The DNA is not enclosed in a nucleus, but is visible throughout the cell.
►By contrast, eukaryotic DNA is linear (in a line); it does not connect end to end to form a circle. The DNA in a eukaryotic cell is enclosed in a nucleus -- it is "membrane-bound." Other organelles are enclosed in membranes also, much like tiny water balloons of all shapes.
In Eukaryotic cells, there are as many as 1000 replication origins in the nucleus when replication starts.
Despite these differences, however, the underlying process of replication (copying DNA) is the same for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA.
Biological Classification, the Five Kingdoms
- Monera - one prokaryotic cell (has no nucleus) or simple association (blue-green algae, bacteria, etc.)
- Protista - one eukaryotic cell or simple association (amoebae, paramecium, algae, etc.)
- Fungi - mostly decomposers, eukaryotic; mostly multi-cellular (mushrooms, bread mold, etc.), a few single-celled fungi (such as yeast).
- Plantae - mostly autotrophs (make their own food), multi-celled, eukaryotic cells. Some exceptions - some parasitic organisms are Plantae, but not autotrophs.
- Animalia - multi-celled, eukaryotic cells, heterotrophs, but not decomposers like Fungi
Part 2 Single-celled kingdoms Monera and Protista
Part 3 Multi-celled kingdoms Fungi, Plantae, and Anamalia
(7) p. 20-21, The Definition of Species
(8) p. 21-26, Biological Keys
(9) p. 27, Naming Organisms Based on Classification Binomial Nomenclature
(10) p. 27b-30, Alternate Forms of Taxonomy
(11) p. 30-32, The Microscope If you missed class, study the picture of a microscope in your textbook and note the labeled parts.
Read the entire experiment.
Then go to the Virtual Microscope. Click on The virtual scope.
►If this is your first time at this site, take the tour, selecting any slide other than the cheek smear. The steps will be on the top right.
The next step will be highlighted with a red border. Anytime you missed an instruction, click the back arrow ◄ at the bottom of the list of steps. After switching views so that you're looking through the microscope, on the left you can click open the checklist.
Experiment 1.2, Introduction to the Microscope. After the tour, select the cheek cell slide to do Experiment 1.2.
Remember to turn the light ON before switching views.
The directions in your book say to draw what you see at each magnification. Start with 4x magnification. Make sure you have your checklist complete on the website before drawing, and before moving to the next magnification. Label page as a cheek cell, and label each magnification. These are stained blue so you'll be able to see them easier.
(Remember, the power of the ocular (eyepiece) is usually 10x, so if you are using the 4x objective, it is 4x10=40x larger than an actual cheek cell)
►Here is Michelle's class looking at cheek cells.
I love Biology! =)